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Other Name
ALTER CROSS
Date Range From
1912
Date Range To
2003
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
BRASS
Catalogue Number
P20060021001
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
ALTER CROSS
Date Range From
1912
Date Range To
2003
Materials
BRASS
No. Pieces
1
Height
78
Length
44
Width
24
Description
BRASS ALTER CROSS. CROSS SITS ON A THREE TIERED BRASS BASE. CENTER AXES OF CROSS READS "IHS". FOUR POINT OF CROSS HAS A CLOVER-LIKE SHAPE.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
RELIGION
History
ALTER CROSS IS BELIEVED TO BE ORIGINAL TO THE BUILDING (1912) OR EARLIER. WHEN THE ALTER WAS MOVED FROM THE EAST WALL OF THE CHURCH IN 1966, IT WAS FOUND THAT THE CROSS WAS TOO LARGE, OBSCURING THE PRIEST WHEN HE STOOD "BEHIND" THE ALTER. DURING THESE SERVICES, THE CROSS WAS MOVED TO ANOTHER TABLE IN THE SANCTUARY, BUT WAS ALWAYS RETURNED TO ITS PLACE OF HONOR AFTER EACH SERVICE. THE LETTERS "IHS" IN THE CENTER SECTION OF THE CROSS, ALTHOUGH COMMONLY BELIEVED TO BE AN ABBREVIATION FOR "IN HIS SERVICE" ACTUALLY ARE THE FIRST THREE LETTERS OF JESUS' NAME IN GREEK. ST MARY’S ANGLICAN CHURCH BEGAN EARLY IN THE 1900S. THE EARLIEST ARCHIVAL RECORD IS A STATEMENT MADE IN JANUARY, 1906 THAT A GROUP OF PROMINENT MEMBERS OF ST. AUGUSTIN’S PARISHIONERS AGREED TO COVER A DEFICIT IN THE OPERATION OF ST. MARY’S MISSION UP TO $300. APPARENTLY, ST. MARY’S EXISTED BEFORE THIS DECISION, BUT IT IS UNKNOWN FOR HOW LONG. A FORMAL ORGANIZATION MEETING FOR ST. MARY’S MISSION WAS HELD ON APRIL 20. 1908. THE SEPARATE PARISH OF ST. MARY’S WAS ESTABLISHED ON FEBRUARY 1, 1910. THE “NEW” CHURCH WAS BUILT IN 1912, AND USED BY THE PARISH UNTIL IT CLOSED IN 2003. THE NORTH SIDE CHRISTIAN FELLOWSHIP THEN RENTED THE BUILDING UNTIL 2006, WHEN THE PROPERTY WAS SOLD TO A PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL. THERE WERE AT LEAST EIGHT RECTORS (PRIESTS) AT ST MARY’S BETWEEN 1910 AND 1944, INCLUDING SOME PERIODS OF TIME WHEN NO PRIEST WAS AVAILABLE (OR AFFORDABLE). IN 1944, ROBERT COWAN ARRIVED AND SERVED ST. MARY’S FOR THE NEXT 37 YEARS UNTIL 1981, A TERM UNPARALLELED IN THE ANGLICAN DIOCESE OF CALGARY. IT WAS DURING THIS TIME THAT ST. MARY’S BECAME KNOWN HAS ST. MARY THE VIRGIN. CANON COWAN RETURNED TO ST MARY’S AS A PARISHIONER FOR A FEW YEARS LATER, AND REMAINED UNTIL HIS DEATH IN 1999. MICHAEL EBSWORTH SERVED AS RECTOR FROM 1981 UNTIL 1994, WHEN HE RESIGNED DUE TO HEALTH REASONS. FATHER EBSWORTH REMAINED A RESIDENT OF LETHBRIDGE, OFTEN SERVING AS A “VISITING” PRIEST, AND HE TOOK PART IN THE FINAL SERVICE AT ST. MARY’S HELD ON AUGUST 14, 2003. IN THE FINAL DECADE OF ST MARY’S EXISTENCE, FIVE OTHER PRIESTS SERVED THE PARISH, INCLUDING TWO FEMALE PRIESTS WHICH SOME FOUND SURPRISING DUE TO ST. MARY’S TRADITIONAL LITURGICAL PRACTICES. THE CHURCH CLOSED AND AMALGAMATED WITH THE ANGLICAN PARISH OF ST. AUGUSTINE. OTHER OBJECTS AND ARCHIVAL MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH ST. MARY'S OPERATION WERE TRANSFERRED TO THE ANGLICAN DIOCESE OF CALGARY. AT THE TIME OF ITS CLOSURE, ST MARY'S WAS THE LONGEST OPERATING OF ANY LETHBRIDGE CHURCH IN THE CURRENT PREMISES. FOR COMPLETE HISTORY SEE PERMANENT FILE.
Catalogue Number
P20060021001
Acquisition Date
2006-08
Collection
Museum
Less detail
Other Name
PENNY JAR
Date Range From
1922
Date Range To
2002
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
TIN
Catalogue Number
P20060010003
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
PENNY JAR
Date Range From
1922
Date Range To
2002
Materials
TIN
No. Pieces
1
Height
12
Diameter
13
Description
HOMEMADE PIGGY BANK MADE FROM JAM CAN. BLK TIN PENNY JAR. HAND PAINTED GRN TEXT READS "PENNY JAR". TOP OF JAR HAS SLOT OPENING TO DROP COINS.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
ASSOCIATIONS
History
BANK WAS USED BY MEMBERS TO COLLECT PENNIES FOR MEMBER'S BIRTHDAY AND USED FOR OTHER LIKE DONATIONS. DONOR CAME INTO POSSION OF THE ARTIFACT(S) AS THE LAST PRESIDENT OF THE CPR LADIES LODGE. SINCE THERE WERE NO NEW MEMBERS AND FIVE MEMBERS WERE NEEDED TO HAVE A MEETING, THE LODGE AMALGAMATED WITH MEDICINE HAT. THE PAST SECRETARY MOVED TO A NURSING HOME AND THE DONOR BECAME BOTH PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY. SEE P20060010001 FOR COMPLETE HISTORY ON THE CPR LADIES LODGE.
Catalogue Number
P20060010003
Acquisition Date
2006-05
Collection
Museum
Less detail
Other Name
HANGING, CHINESE AND ENGLISH TEXT
Date Range From
1950
Date Range To
2000
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
NYLON, INK
Catalogue Number
P20110031014
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
HANGING, CHINESE AND ENGLISH TEXT
Date Range From
1950
Date Range To
2000
Materials
NYLON, INK
No. Pieces
1
Height
105
Length
156
Description
RECTANGULAR PIECE OF RED NYLON. VERTICAL EDGES ARE FACTORY FINISHED; HORIZONTAL EDGES ARE CUT AND FRAYING. FABRIC IS SIGNED WITH NAMES IN BLACK PERMANENT MARKER IN CHINESE CHARACTERS AND ENGLISH TEXT. FABRIC IS CREASED. OVERALL VERY GOOD CONDITION.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
DOCUMENTARY ARTIFACT
Historical Association
ASSOCIATIONS
History
THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT THIS ARTIFACT COMES FROM INTERVIEWS HELD WITH MAY LEE AND JUDY CHAN, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG AND JANICE WONG. PERSONAL DETAILS ABOUT THE LIVES OF MAY LEE, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG THEIR IMMIGRATION TO CANADA ARE FOUND BELOW THE ARTIFACT DETAILS AND BELOW THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY BUILDING. RICHARD THINKS THAT THIS BANNER WAS IN THE PEKING RESTAURANT AND THAT MEMBERS PROBABLY SIGNED IT, “OR THE GUESTS. I THINK THIS HAPPENED AT THE PEKING, I THINK. PEKING RESTAURANT.” A SERIES OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD GIVE BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY AND ITS BUILDING: THE BUILDING THAT HOUSED THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY WAS BUILT IN 1909-1910 IN THE 300 BLOCK OF 2 AVENUE SOUTH AND IT WAS ORIGINALLY A RESTAURANT. BY 1915 IT HAD BECOME THE HEADQUARTERS FOR THE LETHBRIDGE BRANCH OF THE KAO MIN TANG (ALTERNATIVE SPELLINGS INCLUDE KUOMINTANG, KUO MIN TANG, GUOMINDANG, AND GUO MIN DANG). THE BUILDING WAS DESIGNATED AS A PROVINCIAL HERITAGE RESOURCE IN 1995 BECAUSE OF ITS VALUE AS A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CENTRE FOR THE LETHBRIDGE CHINESE COMMUNITY. THE BUILDING WAS USED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS BY THE SOCIETY AND INCLUDED, AT VARIOUS TIMES, A RESTAURANT, A SCHOOL, AND LIVING ACCOMODATIONS. IN FEBRUARY 2011 A SECTION OF THE BRICK FAÇADE FELL OFF THE BUILDING AND CITY INSPECTORS DETERMINED THAT THE TIMBER AND RED BRICK STRUCTURE WAS POTENTIALLY UNSTABLE. THE BUILDING WAS TORN DOWN A SHORT TIME LATER. LETHBRIDGE'S CHINATOWN EMERGED IN 1901, A RESULT OF THE CHINESE POPULATION BEING RELEGATED TO A SECTION OF THE CITY BETWEEN GALT GARDENS AND THE COULEES. IN A JANUARY 7, 2002 ARTICLE ALBERT LEONG EXPLAINS THAT NO ONE REALLY WANTED CHINESE PEOPLE AROUND AND THAT “’ THEY WERE TOLD THAT THE ONLY PLACE THEY COULD START BUSINESSES WAS BETWEEN THE COULEES AT THE PARK, BECAUSE THE CITY DIDN’T WANT ANY COMPETITION FOR THE WHITE BUSINESSMEN … BUT ‘GHETTO-IZED’ OR NOT, THE CHINESE WHO CAME TO LETHBRIDGE FORMED AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BACKBONE OF THIS CITY, [AND MADE] NOTEWORTHY [CONTRIBUTIONS] TO THE HISTORY OF THIS PLACE.’” BUSINESSES SUCH AS LAUNDRIES, MARKET GARDENS, AND RESTAURANTS WERE OPENED IN CHINATOWN, WITH THE RESIDENTS LIVING IN ROOMS ABOVE THE BUSINESSES. IN 1912 THERE WERE ABOUT 100 PEOPLE LIVING IN CHINATOWN AND BY THE 1930S, IT WAS A BUSTLING COMMUNITY. THE POPULATION OF CHINATOWN DWINDLED FOLLOWING THE SECOND WORLD WAR. JANICE WONG, PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY IN 2015, GAVE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOCIETY IN AN INTERVIEW: AS OF 2015, THE SOCIETY EXISTS MORE AS A SOCIAL CLUB AND THE SOCIETY HOLDS THREE CELEBRATORY DINNERS EACH YEAR, USUALLY HELD AT THE NEW DYNASTY RESTAURANT. THE SOCIETY ALSO VISITS THE CEMETERY ON A YEARLY BASIS “TO HONOUR THE ANCESTORS, CLEAN THE TOMBS, BRING FOOD, DO THE USUAL THINGS THAT WE USED TO DO – EAT ON GRAVES, BURN THE INCENSE. WE DO THAT EVERY YEAR STILL TO HONOUR OUR ANCESTORS. IT IS USUALLY IN THE SPRING … IN APRIL.” JANICE BRIEFLY DISCUSSED THE FUTURE OF THE SOCIETY, INDICATING THAT THERE IS SOME TALK ABOUT RE-BUILDING “BUT THAT INVOLVES A LOT OF PLANNING, AND MONEY, AND FUNDRAISING” AND SHE QUESTIONS WHETHER OR NOT THERE IS ENOUGH OF A MEMBERSHIP BASE TO GO FORWARD WITH RE-BUILDING. SHE ALSO EXPLAINED THAT PREVIOUS CHINESE IMMIGRANTS HAD TENDED TO COME FROM THE SAME GEOGRAPHIC REGION, BUT THAT PRESENTLY IMMIGRANTS ARE COMING FROM ALL OVER CHINA: “THERE’S A LOT OF INFLUX OF PEOPLE FROM CHINA THAT AREN’T FROM THE SAME AREA, BECAUSE TRADITIONALLY, THE PEOPLE WERE ALL FROM THE SAME AREA AND SPOKE THE SAME DIALECT AND HAD THAT SORT OF THING KEEPING THEM TOGETHER AS A COMMUNITY OVERSEAS FROM CHINA.” PERSONAL DETAILS ABOUT THE LIVES OF MAY LEE, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG AND THEIR IMMIGRATION TO CANADA ARE BELOW: MAY LEE: MAY WAS ACTUALLY BORN IN CANADA AND IS KNOWN AS A GOLD MOUNTAIN GIRL, BECAUSE SHE IS A CANADIAN-BORN CHINESE WOMAN. MAY EXPLAINS: “I WAS BORN IN CANADA. I WAS BORN IN NANOOSE BAY. WHEN I WAS 4 YEARS OLD, WE MOVED TO VICTORIA. WHEN I WAS 9 YEARS OLD AND THE WHOLE FAMILY, IN 1930, GO BACK TO CHINA.” DURING THE WAR, THE JAPANESE BOMBED THE GIRLS’ HIGH SCHOOL IN TOCSIN CITY AND MAY’S MOTHER DECIDED TO SEND MAY AND HER BROTHER TO HONG KONG TO START THE PROCESS OF COMING TO CANADA. MAY STARTED ENGLISH SCHOOL IN HONG KONG, BUT OFTEN MISSED CLASSES BECAUSE SHE WAS SICK FROM THE HEAT. SHE SAYS THAT SHE’S LEARNED MOST OF HER ENGLISH FROM HER HUSBAND, HER CHILDREN, GRANDCHILDREN, AND EVEN GREAT-GRANDCHILDREN. SHE WAS MARRIED TO HOM MEN LEE, AKA JIMMY LEE, ON NOVEMBER 16, 1938 IN VICTORIA, BC. JIMMY WAS BORN IN LETHBRIDGE AT THE GALT HOSPITAL, BUT WAS SENT BACK TO CHINA AS A CHILD FOR HIS EDUCATION. JIMMY’S FAMILY HAD COME TO LETHBRIDGE IN 1914 AND OWNED LEE-DUC CLEANERS. THE LEE FAMILY LIVED ABOVE THE SHOP, WHICH WAS ON 13TH STREET NORTH, NEAR HIGA’S JEWELERS. MAY’S MAIN MEMORY OF CHINATOWN: “ALL I REMEMBER IN CHINATOWN, IN SUMMERTIME, LOTS OF OLD GUYS SITTING IN FRONT OF GUOMINDANG. AUNTIE HELEN GREW UP IN CHINATOWN. I THINK SHE KNOWS MORE ABOUT CHINATOWN. IN THE OLDEN DAYS, I HARDLY GO OUT, JUST TO BUY GROCERIES.” JUDY ADDED THAT MAY HAD 8 CHILDREN AND WAS KEPT BUSY AT HOME RAISING THEM. RICHARD LOO: RICHARD ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1953, HAVING LEFT THE MAINLAND OF CHINA IN 1949. RICHARD’S GRANDFATHER HAD MOVED TO CANADA IN EITHER LATE 1800S OR THE EARLY 1900S AND HAD HAD TO PAY THE HEAD TAX. HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED AS A COOK IN RESTAURANTS, EITHER IN LETHBRIDGE OR IN TABER (ACCORDING TO RICHARD, HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED THROUGH THE WAR YEARS IN TABER). RICHARD’S GRANDFATHER HAD PLANNED ON MOVING BACK TO CHINA WHEN HE RETIRED, BUT THEN THE COMMUNISTS TOOK OVER, AND HE ELECTED TO STAY. AT THAT TIME, HE INVITED RICHARD TO MOVE TO LETHBRIDGE AS WELL. RICHARD LEFT HONG KONG, AFTER LIVING THERE FOR 8 MONTHS, ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON AT 2PM LOCAL TIME. HE FINALLY ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE SUNDAY AFTERNOON. HE WAS LUCKY IN THAT HE WAS ABLE TO GET HIS FLIGHTS ON SALE. NORMALLY A TICKET FROM HONG KONG TO VANCOUVER WOULD HAVE COST $700, BUT RICHARD WAS ABLE TO SECURE A FLIGHT FOR ONLY $500. HE ALSO INDICATED THAT HIS FLIGHT TO LETHBRIDGE WAS ONLY $39.95. ON RECALLING HIS FIRST TIME IN LETHBRIDGE, RICHARD RECOUNTED THE FOLLOWING STORY: “SO, BY THE TIME I GOT TO THE AIRPORT, I DIDN’T KNOW HOW TO SAY NOTHING. DIDN’T KNOW – MAYBE COULD SAY ‘GOOD MORNING’ – THAT’S ALL YOU COULD SAY, JUST ANYWAYS HOW TO SAY ‘HELLO’ – SO, ANYWAY, SO IN THE MEANTIME, THE FELLOW AT THE AIRPORT MUST HAVE KNOWN ZEKE, YOU KNOW ZEKE QUAN [OWNER OF] THE LOTUS INN [RESTAURANT], AND HE PHONED HIM UP. HE SAYS, ‘ZEKE.’ I DIDN’T KNOW WHAT HE WAS TALKING ABOUT – NOTHING. AND THEN HE SAYS, ‘HEY, THIS IS A CHINA BOY HERE. WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO WITH HIM?’ SO, ZEKE SAYS, ‘OH, JUST TAKE HIM TO CHINATOWN AND DUMP HIM.’ NOW, I DIDN’T KNOW THOSE, NOT UNTIL LATER ON. ZEKE’S SON GO TO SAME SCHOOL I DID – CENTRAL SCHOOL.” RICHARD INITIALLY LIVED IN THE SOCIETY BUILDING FOR SEVERAL YEARS, OCCUPYING A ROOM THAT HAD BEEN RECENTLY VACATED BY ANOTHER MAN NAMED LOO WHO HAD GONE TO WORK IN PICTURE BUTTE. RICHARD RECALLED THAT THE SOCIETY WAS A GOOD PLACE TO FEEL A SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND THAT IT WAS A WELCOMING PLACE FOR NEW CHINESE IMMIGRANTS, A PLACE WHERE THEY WEREN’T DISCRIMINATED AGAINST. HONG WONG: HONG ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1951 AND WAS INVITED TO THE CITY BY HIS UNCLE SHUEY WONG, WHO WAS ALREADY LIVING HERE. UNCLE SHUEY HAD COME TO CANADA SEVERAL YEARS BEFORE AND HAD HAD TO PAY THE $500 HEAD TAX. HONG TRAVELED WITH HIS BROTHER FROM MAINLAND CHINA TO HONG KONG, IN ORDER TO GO TO THE CANADIAN EMBASSY. ON HIS FERRY RIDE TO HONG KONG, HE WAS SHOT BY BANDITS AND WAS REQUIRED TO STAY IN THE HOSPITAL FOR QUITE SOME TIME TO RECOVER. HIS BROTHER ELECTED TO REMAIN IN HONG KONG, AS HIS MOTHER-IN-LAW LIVED IN THE CITY AND GOT HONG’S BROTHER WORK IN A THEATRE. TO GET TO CANADA, HONG FLEW FROM JAPAN TO GUAM, TO VANCOUVER, AND THEN FINALLY TO LETHBRIDGE. HIS FIRST IMPRESSION OF LETHBRIDGE: COLD. HONG SAID: “’WELL, IN HONG KONG IT WAS AROUND MAYBE 20 SOME 30 ABOVE. AND HERE, AT THAT TIME, MAYBE 20 BELOW, OR 20 SOME BELOW. I DIDN’T HAVE THE EAR MUFFS. I SAID, ‘GEE, I’M NOT SO HAPPY HERE, IT SEEMS SO COLD.’” UNCLE SHUEY TOLD HONG THAT IT WAS ONE OF THE COLDEST WINTERS HE COULD REMEMBER. HONG WORKED FOR HIS UNCLE IN HIS SHOP ON 9TH AVENUE, DOING CHORES AROUND THE STORE, UNTIL HIS ENGLISH HAD IMPROVED ENOUGH SO THAT HE COULD SERVE CUSTOMERS. HE JOINED THE CHINESE NATIONALIST LEAGUE SOCIETY ALMOST AS SOON AS HE ARRIVED: “WHEN I CAME HERE, I JOINED IN THE SAME YEAR BECAUSE MY UNCLE WAS A MEMBER. SO THAT’S WHY HE GOT ME IN TO BE A MEMBER. OH, AT THAT TIME, I BET, 95% OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE THEY BELONG TO THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE, I BELIEVE.” HE CONTINUED, SAYING THAT YOU COULDN’T BE A MEMBER OF BOTH THE SOCIETY AND THE MASONS, AND HE BELIEVES ABOUT 5% OF THE CITY’S CHINESE POPULATION WOULD HAVE BELONGED TO THE MASONS. HE ADDED: “BUT WE ARE STILL FRIENDS, STILL FRIENDS. WE’RE NOT ENEMY OR ANYTHING BUT, IT’S JUST THAT THE ORGANIZATIONS ARE DIFFERENT. THAT’S ALL.” HONG ENJOYED THE CAMARADERIE OF THE SOCIETY. HE SAID: “I REMEMBER, I LIKE IT BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE PARTY AND SO MANY PEOPLE. AND THEN YOU MEET ALL THE CHINESE PEOPLE THERE IN THE ONE GROUP. WELL, ANYWAY, WHEN YOU SEE SO MANY PEOPLE IN ONE PARTY, AND THEN WHEN THEY COME OUT MOSTLY THE PEOPLE THAT PARTY AND IT FEELS LIKE A LOTS OF FRIENDS OR EVEN LIKE THE FAMILY. SO YOU FEEL GOOD, YOU FEEL BETTER, AND THEN, WELL, MY UNCLE BELONGS THERE TOO AND THEN THE OTHERS BELONG THERE TOO, YEAH, EVERYBODY LIKE IN THE BIG FAMILY. YES, NICE, OTHERWISE YOU DON’T HAVE ANY FRIENDS, YOU DON’T MEET ANYBODY, IF YOU NOT BELONG THERE, I THINK NOT SO FRIENDLY TO YOU.” HONG INDICATED THAT WHEN A SPECIAL MEAL WAS HELD AT THE SOCIETY, IT WAS THE MEN WHO DID THE COOKING: “AT THAT TIME JUST ABOUT EVERYBODY KNOWS HOW TO COOK BECAUSE MOSTLY WE WORK IN THE KITCHEN WHEN THEY CAME HERE.” HE SAID THAT DINERS WOULD PAY A SMALL FEE TO EAT AT THE LEAGUE WHEN SPECIAL MEALS WERE PUT ON. SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR COPIES OF LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARTICLES AND FOR INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS.
Catalogue Number
P20110031014
Acquisition Date
2011-11
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
CHURCH STEEPLE BELL
Date Range From
1912
Date Range To
2003
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
IRON
Catalogue Number
P20060021007
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
CHURCH STEEPLE BELL
Date Range From
1912
Date Range To
2003
Materials
IRON
No. Pieces
2
Height
60
Length
56
Diameter
5
Description
CAST IRON STEEPLE BELL WITH CLAPPER. CAST IRON MOUNT AND CORD HOLDING MOVEMENT WHEEL (SEPARATE PCE) FOR BELL OPERATION. ROPE ATTACHED TO ARM OF MOUNT. RD PAINT CAN BE SEEN ON INTERIOR OF BELL THROUGH WEAR OF METAL. BELL IS VERY RUSTED.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
RELIGION
History
BELL WAS USED UP TO THE CLOSURE OF THE ST. MARY'S CHURCH IN 2003. IT WAS RUNG BEFORE EACH SERVICE TO SUMMON THE FAITHFUL. THE BELL DOES NOT HAVE A MUSICAL SOUND, AND IT IS SAID THAT THE BELL CAME FROM THE FIRST LOCOMOTIVE USED IN THE LETHBRIDGE COLLIERY. AS MANY OF THE EARLY PARISHIONERS OF ST. MARY'S WERE MINING FAMILIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NUMBER 3 MINE, IT IS A VERY PLAUSIBLE STORY. THIS STORY HAS BEEN REPEATED IN A NUMBER OF PRINTED ARTICLES, SOME OF WHICH ARE IN THE ARCHIVES IN CALGARY. ST MARY’S ANGLICAN CHURCH BEGAN EARLY IN THE 1900S. THE EARLIEST ARCHIVAL RECORD IS A STATEMENT MADE IN JANUARY, 1906 THAT A GROUP OF PROMINENT MEMBERS OF ST. AUGUSTIN’S PARISHIONERS AGREED TO COVER A DEFICIT IN THE OPERATION OF ST. MARY’S MISSION UP TO $300. APPARENTLY, ST. MARY’S EXISTED BEFORE THIS DECISION, BUT IT IS UNKNOWN FOR HOW LONG. A FORMAL ORGANIZATION MEETING FOR ST. MARY’S MISSION WAS HELD ON APRIL 20. 1908. THE SEPARATE PARISH OF ST. MARY’S WAS ESTABLISHED ON FEBRUARY 1, 1910. THE “NEW” CHURCH WAS BUILT IN 1912, AND USED BY THE PARISH UNTIL IT CLOSED IN 2003. THE NORTH SIDE CHRISTIAN FELLOWSHIP THEN RENTED THE BUILDING UNTIL 2006, WHEN THE PROPERTY WAS SOLD TO A PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL. THERE WERE AT LEAST EIGHT RECTORS (PRIESTS) AT ST MARY’S BETWEEN 1910 AND 1944, INCLUDING SOME PERIODS OF TIME WHEN NO PRIEST WAS AVAILABLE (OR AFFORDABLE). IN 1944, ROBERT COWAN ARRIVED AND SERVED ST. MARY’S FOR THE NEXT 37 YEARS UNTIL 1981, A TERM UNPARALLELED IN THE ANGLICAN DIOCESE OF CALGARY. IT WAS DURING THIS TIME THAT ST. MARY’S BECAME KNOWN HAS ST. MARY THE VIRGIN. CANON COWAN RETURNED TO ST MARY’S AS A PARISHIONER FOR A FEW YEARS LATER, AND REMAINED UNTIL HIS DEATH IN 1999. MICHAEL EBSWORTH SERVED AS RECTOR FROM 1981 UNTIL 1994, WHEN HE RESIGNED DUE TO HEALTH REASONS. FATHER EBSWORTH REMAINED A RESIDENT OF LETHBRIDGE, OFTEN SERVING AS A “VISITING” PRIEST, AND HE TOOK PART IN THE FINAL SERVICE AT ST. MARY’S HELD ON AUGUST 14, 2003. IN THE FINAL DECADE OF ST MARY’S EXISTENCE, FIVE OTHER PRIESTS SERVED THE PARISH, INCLUDING TWO FEMALE PRIESTS WHICH SOME FOUND SURPRISING DUE TO ST. MARY’S TRADITIONAL LITURGICAL PRACTICES. THE CHURCH CLOSED AND AMALGAMATED WITH THE ANGLICAN PARISH OF ST. AUGUSTINE. OTHER OBJECTS AND ARCHIVAL MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH ST. MARY'S OPERATION WERE TRANSFERRED TO THE ANGLICAN DIOCESE OF CALGARY. AT THE TIME OF ITS CLOSURE, ST MARY'S WAS THE LONGEST OPERATING OF ANY LETHBRIDGE CHURCH IN THE CURRENT PREMISES. FOR COMPLETE HISTORY SEE PERMANENT FILE P20060021001.
Catalogue Number
P20060021007
Acquisition Date
2006-08
Collection
Museum
Less detail
Other Name
DONATION BOX
Date Range From
1947
Date Range To
2007
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
WOOD, METAL
Catalogue Number
P20070020011
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
DONATION BOX
Date Range From
1947
Date Range To
2007
Materials
WOOD, METAL
No. Pieces
1
Height
71.0
Length
70.6
Width
35.5
Description
PLYWOOD BOX, UPPER SURFACE OF BOX HAS OPENING WITH PERPENDICULAR CROSS BARS, SIDES OF BOX WITH BLACK METAL HANDLES, FRONT OF BOX WITH ASIAN CHARACTERS WHICH READ, “DONATIONS,” BACK OF BOX WITH METAL LATCH THAT SECURES CLOSED DRAWER.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
RELIGION
History
DONATION BOX SAT NEAR THE ENTRANCE OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH. CONGREGATION MEMBERS WOULD PLACE DONATIONS IN BOX, USUALLY WITHIN ENVELOPES. DONATIONS WERE ESPECIALLY COMMON DURING CERTAIN EVENTS. DONATION BOX HANDMADE BY LOCAL BUDDHIST CHURCH MEMBER. INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM REVEREND IZUMI, A LOCAL BUDDHIST MINISTER. FOR MORE INFORMATION, SEE P20070020001 AND PERMANENT RECORD.
Catalogue Number
P20070020011
Acquisition Date
2007-10
Collection
Museum
Less detail
Other Name
NENJU
Date Range From
1947
Date Range To
2007
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
PLASTIC, CORD
Catalogue Number
P20070020018
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
NENJU
Date Range From
1947
Date Range To
2007
Materials
PLASTIC, CORD
No. Pieces
2
Description
NENJU: BEADED BRACELET OF ORANGE AND CLEAR BEADS STRUNG WITH BROWN CORD, TASSEL HANGS FROM END OF BRACELET, HEIGHT 0.5, LENGTH 12.5, WIDTH 2.4. JAPANESE NAME IS, “NENJU,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “THOUGHT BEADS.” 1 PCE. BEADED BRACELET OF WHITE, BROWN AND GREEN BEADS, STRUNG WITH WHITE CORD, BROWN TASSEL HANGS FROM END OF BRACELET, HEIGHT 0.8, LENGTH 17.5, WIDTH 3.0. JAPANESE NAME IS, “NENJU,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “THOUGHT BEADS.” 1 PCE.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
RELIGION
History
THESE BEADED BRACELETS WOULD HAVE BEEN AVAILABLE TO CHURCH MEMBERS WHO MAY HAVE FORGOTTEN THEIR NENJU AT HOME. DURING ‘GASSHO’, A GESTURE OF RESPECT THAT IS PAID TO AMIDA BUDDHA, THE BEADS ARE PLACED AROUND THE HANDS, WITH THE TASSEL HANGING DOWN DIRECTLY IN THE CENTER. THEY ARE ALSO USED DURING MEDITATION. THESE PARTICULAR NENJU ARE SIZED FOR CHILDREN. INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM REVEREND IZUMI, A LOCAL BUDDHIST MINISTER, IN 2008. FOR MORE INFORMATION, SEE PERMANENT FILE AND P20070020001.
Catalogue Number
P20070020018
Acquisition Date
2007-10
Collection
Museum
Less detail
Date Range From
1947
Date Range To
2007
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
CLOTH
Catalogue Number
P20070020013
Material Type
Artifact
Date Range From
1947
Date Range To
2007
Materials
CLOTH
No. Pieces
4
Description
UCHISHIKI 1: TABLE CLOTH WITH FLOWER MOTIF, BLUE, SILVER AND WHITE DOMINANT COLOURS. LENGTH 100.0, WIDTH 48.0. JAPANESE NAME IS, “UCHISHIKI,” “HIKI,” TRANSLATES TO, “ROLL OF CLOTH.” TABLE CLOTH 5 SIDED. 1 PCE. UCHISHIKI 2: TABLE CLOTH WITH FLOWER MOTIF, OCHRE DOMINANT COLOUR WITH WHITE, RED, GREEN AND GOLD. LENGTH 94.0, WIDTH 56.0. JAPANESE NAME IS, “UCHISHIKI,” “HIKI,” TRANSLATES TO, “ROLL OF CLOTH.” TABLE CLOTH 5 SIDED. LOSS VIA BURN PRESENT ON CENTER OF CLOTH. STORE LABEL AND TEXT READING, “MADE IN JAPAN” ON BACK OF CLOTH. 1 PCE. UCHISHIKI 3 AND 4: TABLE CLOTH WITH FLOWER MOTIF, RED, PURPLES, GOLD AND WHITE DOMINANT COLOURS. LENGTH 93.0, WIDTH 55.0. JAPANESE NAME IS, “UCHISHIKI,” “HIKI,” TRANSLATES TO, “ROLL OF CLOTH.” TABLE CLOTH 5 SIDED. WAX AND WATER STAINING APPARENT ON BACK OF CLOTH. 2 PCES.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
RELIGION
History
THE ORIGIN OF THESE UCHISHIKI ARE UNKOWN. PHOTOGRAPHS WERE EXAMINED TO DETERMINE WHEN THESE CLOTHS WERE ACQUIRED, AND IF THEY WERE PART OF THE BUTSUGU THAT WAS ORDERED FROM JAPAN WITH THE SHRINE IN 1962, WITH NO CONCLUSIVE RESULTS. WHEN DONATED TO THE GALT MUSEUM & ARCHIVES, THESE CLOTHS WERE WRAPPED IN A PAPER PACKAGING. SEE P20070020014 FOR MORE INFORMATION. INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM REVEREND IZUMI, A LOCAL BUDDHIST MINISTER, IN 2008. FOR MORE INFORMATION, SEE P20070020001 AND PERMANENT RECORD. UCHISHIKI 1, 2, 3 AND 4: UCHISHIKI 1 WAS USED AS A TABLE CLOTH FOR THE UWA-JOKU, WHILE UCHISHIKI 2,3 AND 4 WERE USED AS TABLE CLOTHS FOR THE KYO-JOKU (SUTRA TABLES). THE CLOTHS ARE POSITIONED SUCH THAT THE CENTRAL CORNER OF THE CLOTH IS DRAPED OVER THE FRONT END OF THE TABLE.
Catalogue Number
P20070020013
Acquisition Date
2007-10
Collection
Museum
Less detail
Other Name
PAIR
Date Range From
1920
Date Range To
2000
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
BRASS, ROPE
Catalogue Number
P20110031015
  2 images  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
PAIR
Date Range From
1920
Date Range To
2000
Materials
BRASS, ROPE
No. Pieces
2
Height
8
Diameter
60.5
Description
PAIR OF ROUND BRASS CYMBALS WITH ROPE HANDLES AT CENTRE. EACH CYMBAL HAS FOUR CHINESE CHARACTERS PAINTED ACROSS THE TOP IN BLACK INK, AND ONE LARGE CHINESE CHARACTER WITH THREE COLUMNS OF SMALLER CHARACTERS PAINTED ON THE BOTTOM IN BLACK INK. .A HAS TWO HOLES DRILLED THROUGH ONE SIDE, WITH A CRACK IN BETWEEN THE HOLES. .B HAS A RECTANGULAR PIECE MISSING ALONG ONE EDGE, WITH A CRACK EXTENDING FROM THE AREA OF LOSS. METAL IS DISCOLOURED AND WORN. OVERALL FAIR CONDITION.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
MUSICAL T&E
Historical Association
ASSOCIATIONS
History
THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT THIS ARTIFACT COMES FROM INTERVIEWS HELD WITH MAY LEE AND JUDY CHAN, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG AND JANICE WONG. PERSONAL DETAILS ABOUT THE LIVES OF MAY LEE, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG THEIR IMMIGRATION TO CANADA ARE FOUND BELOW THE ARTIFACT DETAILS AND BELOW THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY BUILDING. NONE OF THE INTERVIEWEES COULD RECALL SEEING THESE CYMBALS IN USE AND HAD NOTHING TO ADD. A SERIES OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD GIVE BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY AND ITS BUILDING: THE BUILDING THAT HOUSED THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY WAS BUILT IN 1909-1910 IN THE 300 BLOCK OF 2 AVENUE SOUTH AND IT WAS ORIGINALLY A RESTAURANT. BY 1915 IT HAD BECOME THE HEADQUARTERS FOR THE LETHBRIDGE BRANCH OF THE KAO MIN TANG (ALTERNATIVE SPELLINGS INCLUDE KUOMINTANG, KUO MIN TANG, GUOMINDANG, AND GUO MIN DANG). THE BUILDING WAS DESIGNATED AS A PROVINCIAL HERITAGE RESOURCE IN 1995 BECAUSE OF ITS VALUE AS A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CENTRE FOR THE LETHBRIDGE CHINESE COMMUNITY. THE BUILDING WAS USED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS BY THE SOCIETY AND INCLUDED, AT VARIOUS TIMES, A RESTAURANT, A SCHOOL, AND LIVING ACCOMODATIONS. IN FEBRUARY 2011 A SECTION OF THE BRICK FAÇADE FELL OFF THE BUILDING AND CITY INSPECTORS DETERMINED THAT THE TIMBER AND RED BRICK STRUCTURE WAS POTENTIALLY UNSTABLE. THE BUILDING WAS TORN DOWN A SHORT TIME LATER. LETHBRIDGE'S CHINATOWN EMERGED IN 1901, A RESULT OF THE CHINESE POPULATION BEING RELEGATED TO A SECTION OF THE CITY BETWEEN GALT GARDENS AND THE COULEES. IN A JANUARY 7, 2002 ARTICLE ALBERT LEONG EXPLAINS THAT NO ONE REALLY WANTED CHINESE PEOPLE AROUND AND THAT “’ THEY WERE TOLD THAT THE ONLY PLACE THEY COULD START BUSINESSES WAS BETWEEN THE COULEES AT THE PARK, BECAUSE THE CITY DIDN’T WANT ANY COMPETITION FOR THE WHITE BUSINESSMEN … BUT ‘GHETTO-IZED’ OR NOT, THE CHINESE WHO CAME TO LETHBRIDGE FORMED AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BACKBONE OF THIS CITY, [AND MADE] NOTEWORTHY [CONTRIBUTIONS] TO THE HISTORY OF THIS PLACE.’” BUSINESSES SUCH AS LAUNDRIES, MARKET GARDENS, AND RESTAURANTS WERE OPENED IN CHINATOWN, WITH THE RESIDENTS LIVING IN ROOMS ABOVE THE BUSINESSES. IN 1912 THERE WERE ABOUT 100 PEOPLE LIVING IN CHINATOWN AND BY THE 1930S, IT WAS A BUSTLING COMMUNITY. THE POPULATION OF CHINATOWN DWINDLED FOLLOWING THE SECOND WORLD WAR. JANICE WONG, PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY IN 2015, GAVE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOCIETY IN AN INTERVIEW: AS OF 2015, THE SOCIETY EXISTS MORE AS A SOCIAL CLUB AND THE SOCIETY HOLDS THREE CELEBRATORY DINNERS EACH YEAR, USUALLY HELD AT THE NEW DYNASTY RESTAURANT. THE SOCIETY ALSO VISITS THE CEMETERY ON A YEARLY BASIS “TO HONOUR THE ANCESTORS, CLEAN THE TOMBS, BRING FOOD, DO THE USUAL THINGS THAT WE USED TO DO – EAT ON GRAVES, BURN THE INCENSE. WE DO THAT EVERY YEAR STILL TO HONOUR OUR ANCESTORS. IT IS USUALLY IN THE SPRING … IN APRIL.” JANICE BRIEFLY DISCUSSED THE FUTURE OF THE SOCIETY, INDICATING THAT THERE IS SOME TALK ABOUT RE-BUILDING “BUT THAT INVOLVES A LOT OF PLANNING, AND MONEY, AND FUNDRAISING” AND SHE QUESTIONS WHETHER OR NOT THERE IS ENOUGH OF A MEMBERSHIP BASE TO GO FORWARD WITH RE-BUILDING. SHE ALSO EXPLAINED THAT PREVIOUS CHINESE IMMIGRANTS HAD TENDED TO COME FROM THE SAME GEOGRAPHIC REGION, BUT THAT PRESENTLY IMMIGRANTS ARE COMING FROM ALL OVER CHINA: “THERE’S A LOT OF INFLUX OF PEOPLE FROM CHINA THAT AREN’T FROM THE SAME AREA, BECAUSE TRADITIONALLY, THE PEOPLE WERE ALL FROM THE SAME AREA AND SPOKE THE SAME DIALECT AND HAD THAT SORT OF THING KEEPING THEM TOGETHER AS A COMMUNITY OVERSEAS FROM CHINA.” PERSONAL DETAILS ABOUT THE LIVES OF MAY LEE, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG AND THEIR IMMIGRATION TO CANADA ARE BELOW: MAY LEE: MAY WAS ACTUALLY BORN IN CANADA AND IS KNOWN AS A GOLD MOUNTAIN GIRL, BECAUSE SHE IS A CANADIAN-BORN CHINESE WOMAN. MAY EXPLAINS: “I WAS BORN IN CANADA. I WAS BORN IN NANOOSE BAY. WHEN I WAS 4 YEARS OLD, WE MOVED TO VICTORIA. WHEN I WAS 9 YEARS OLD AND THE WHOLE FAMILY, IN 1930, GO BACK TO CHINA.” DURING THE WAR, THE JAPANESE BOMBED THE GIRLS’ HIGH SCHOOL IN TOCSIN CITY AND MAY’S MOTHER DECIDED TO SEND MAY AND HER BROTHER TO HONG KONG TO START THE PROCESS OF COMING TO CANADA. MAY STARTED ENGLISH SCHOOL IN HONG KONG, BUT OFTEN MISSED CLASSES BECAUSE SHE WAS SICK FROM THE HEAT. SHE SAYS THAT SHE’S LEARNED MOST OF HER ENGLISH FROM HER HUSBAND, HER CHILDREN, GRANDCHILDREN, AND EVEN GREAT-GRANDCHILDREN. SHE WAS MARRIED TO HOM MEN LEE, AKA JIMMY LEE, ON NOVEMBER 16, 1938 IN VICTORIA, BC. JIMMY WAS BORN IN LETHBRIDGE AT THE GALT HOSPITAL, BUT WAS SENT BACK TO CHINA AS A CHILD FOR HIS EDUCATION. JIMMY’S FAMILY HAD COME TO LETHBRIDGE IN 1914 AND OWNED LEE-DUC CLEANERS. THE LEE FAMILY LIVED ABOVE THE SHOP, WHICH WAS ON 13TH STREET NORTH, NEAR HIGA’S JEWELERS. MAY’S MAIN MEMORY OF CHINATOWN: “ALL I REMEMBER IN CHINATOWN, IN SUMMERTIME, LOTS OF OLD GUYS SITTING IN FRONT OF GUOMINDANG. AUNTIE HELEN GREW UP IN CHINATOWN. I THINK SHE KNOWS MORE ABOUT CHINATOWN. IN THE OLDEN DAYS, I HARDLY GO OUT, JUST TO BUY GROCERIES.” JUDY ADDED THAT MAY HAD 8 CHILDREN AND WAS KEPT BUSY AT HOME RAISING THEM. RICHARD LOO: RICHARD ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1953, HAVING LEFT THE MAINLAND OF CHINA IN 1949. RICHARD’S GRANDFATHER HAD MOVED TO CANADA IN EITHER LATE 1800S OR THE EARLY 1900S AND HAD HAD TO PAY THE HEAD TAX. HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED AS A COOK IN RESTAURANTS, EITHER IN LETHBRIDGE OR IN TABER (ACCORDING TO RICHARD, HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED THROUGH THE WAR YEARS IN TABER). RICHARD’S GRANDFATHER HAD PLANNED ON MOVING BACK TO CHINA WHEN HE RETIRED, BUT THEN THE COMMUNISTS TOOK OVER, AND HE ELECTED TO STAY. AT THAT TIME, HE INVITED RICHARD TO MOVE TO LETHBRIDGE AS WELL. RICHARD LEFT HONG KONG, AFTER LIVING THERE FOR 8 MONTHS, ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON AT 2PM LOCAL TIME. HE FINALLY ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE SUNDAY AFTERNOON. HE WAS LUCKY IN THAT HE WAS ABLE TO GET HIS FLIGHTS ON SALE. NORMALLY A TICKET FROM HONG KONG TO VANCOUVER WOULD HAVE COST $700, BUT RICHARD WAS ABLE TO SECURE A FLIGHT FOR ONLY $500. HE ALSO INDICATED THAT HIS FLIGHT TO LETHBRIDGE WAS ONLY $39.95. ON RECALLING HIS FIRST TIME IN LETHBRIDGE, RICHARD RECOUNTED THE FOLLOWING STORY: “SO, BY THE TIME I GOT TO THE AIRPORT, I DIDN’T KNOW HOW TO SAY NOTHING. DIDN’T KNOW – MAYBE COULD SAY ‘GOOD MORNING’ – THAT’S ALL YOU COULD SAY, JUST ANYWAYS HOW TO SAY ‘HELLO’ – SO, ANYWAY, SO IN THE MEANTIME, THE FELLOW AT THE AIRPORT MUST HAVE KNOWN ZEKE, YOU KNOW ZEKE QUAN [OWNER OF] THE LOTUS INN [RESTAURANT], AND HE PHONED HIM UP. HE SAYS, ‘ZEKE.’ I DIDN’T KNOW WHAT HE WAS TALKING ABOUT – NOTHING. AND THEN HE SAYS, ‘HEY, THIS IS A CHINA BOY HERE. WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO WITH HIM?’ SO, ZEKE SAYS, ‘OH, JUST TAKE HIM TO CHINATOWN AND DUMP HIM.’ NOW, I DIDN’T KNOW THOSE, NOT UNTIL LATER ON. ZEKE’S SON GO TO SAME SCHOOL I DID – CENTRAL SCHOOL.” RICHARD INITIALLY LIVED IN THE SOCIETY BUILDING FOR SEVERAL YEARS, OCCUPYING A ROOM THAT HAD BEEN RECENTLY VACATED BY ANOTHER MAN NAMED LOO WHO HAD GONE TO WORK IN PICTURE BUTTE. RICHARD RECALLED THAT THE SOCIETY WAS A GOOD PLACE TO FEEL A SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND THAT IT WAS A WELCOMING PLACE FOR NEW CHINESE IMMIGRANTS, A PLACE WHERE THEY WEREN’T DISCRIMINATED AGAINST. HONG WONG: HONG ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1951 AND WAS INVITED TO THE CITY BY HIS UNCLE SHUEY WONG, WHO WAS ALREADY LIVING HERE. UNCLE SHUEY HAD COME TO CANADA SEVERAL YEARS BEFORE AND HAD HAD TO PAY THE $500 HEAD TAX. HONG TRAVELED WITH HIS BROTHER FROM MAINLAND CHINA TO HONG KONG, IN ORDER TO GO TO THE CANADIAN EMBASSY. ON HIS FERRY RIDE TO HONG KONG, HE WAS SHOT BY BANDITS AND WAS REQUIRED TO STAY IN THE HOSPITAL FOR QUITE SOME TIME TO RECOVER. HIS BROTHER ELECTED TO REMAIN IN HONG KONG, AS HIS MOTHER-IN-LAW LIVED IN THE CITY AND GOT HONG’S BROTHER WORK IN A THEATRE. TO GET TO CANADA, HONG FLEW FROM JAPAN TO GUAM, TO VANCOUVER, AND THEN FINALLY TO LETHBRIDGE. HIS FIRST IMPRESSION OF LETHBRIDGE: COLD. HONG SAID: “’WELL, IN HONG KONG IT WAS AROUND MAYBE 20 SOME 30 ABOVE. AND HERE, AT THAT TIME, MAYBE 20 BELOW, OR 20 SOME BELOW. I DIDN’T HAVE THE EAR MUFFS. I SAID, ‘GEE, I’M NOT SO HAPPY HERE, IT SEEMS SO COLD.’” UNCLE SHUEY TOLD HONG THAT IT WAS ONE OF THE COLDEST WINTERS HE COULD REMEMBER. HONG WORKED FOR HIS UNCLE IN HIS SHOP ON 9TH AVENUE, DOING CHORES AROUND THE STORE, UNTIL HIS ENGLISH HAD IMPROVED ENOUGH SO THAT HE COULD SERVE CUSTOMERS. HE JOINED THE CHINESE NATIONALIST LEAGUE SOCIETY ALMOST AS SOON AS HE ARRIVED: “WHEN I CAME HERE, I JOINED IN THE SAME YEAR BECAUSE MY UNCLE WAS A MEMBER. SO THAT’S WHY HE GOT ME IN TO BE A MEMBER. OH, AT THAT TIME, I BET, 95% OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE THEY BELONG TO THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE, I BELIEVE.” HE CONTINUED, SAYING THAT YOU COULDN’T BE A MEMBER OF BOTH THE SOCIETY AND THE MASONS, AND HE BELIEVES ABOUT 5% OF THE CITY’S CHINESE POPULATION WOULD HAVE BELONGED TO THE MASONS. HE ADDED: “BUT WE ARE STILL FRIENDS, STILL FRIENDS. WE’RE NOT ENEMY OR ANYTHING BUT, IT’S JUST THAT THE ORGANIZATIONS ARE DIFFERENT. THAT’S ALL.” HONG ENJOYED THE CAMARADERIE OF THE SOCIETY. HE SAID: “I REMEMBER, I LIKE IT BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE PARTY AND SO MANY PEOPLE. AND THEN YOU MEET ALL THE CHINESE PEOPLE THERE IN THE ONE GROUP. WELL, ANYWAY, WHEN YOU SEE SO MANY PEOPLE IN ONE PARTY, AND THEN WHEN THEY COME OUT MOSTLY THE PEOPLE THAT PARTY AND IT FEELS LIKE A LOTS OF FRIENDS OR EVEN LIKE THE FAMILY. SO YOU FEEL GOOD, YOU FEEL BETTER, AND THEN, WELL, MY UNCLE BELONGS THERE TOO AND THEN THE OTHERS BELONG THERE TOO, YEAH, EVERYBODY LIKE IN THE BIG FAMILY. YES, NICE, OTHERWISE YOU DON’T HAVE ANY FRIENDS, YOU DON’T MEET ANYBODY, IF YOU NOT BELONG THERE, I THINK NOT SO FRIENDLY TO YOU.” HONG INDICATED THAT WHEN A SPECIAL MEAL WAS HELD AT THE SOCIETY, IT WAS THE MEN WHO DID THE COOKING: “AT THAT TIME JUST ABOUT EVERYBODY KNOWS HOW TO COOK BECAUSE MOSTLY WE WORK IN THE KITCHEN WHEN THEY CAME HERE.” HE SAID THAT DINERS WOULD PAY A SMALL FEE TO EAT AT THE LEAGUE WHEN SPECIAL MEALS WERE PUT ON. SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR COPIES OF LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARTICLES AND FOR INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS.
Catalogue Number
P20110031015
Acquisition Date
2011-11
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
CZECHOSLOVAKIAN FLAG
Date Range From
1978
Date Range To
2008
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
LINEN, THREAD
Catalogue Number
P20120024003
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
CZECHOSLOVAKIAN FLAG
Date Range From
1978
Date Range To
2008
Materials
LINEN, THREAD
No. Pieces
1
Height
0.25
Length
51
Width
95
Description
HANDMADE, MACHINE-STITCHED LINEN FLAG OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA. COMPRISED OF A BLUE TRIANGLE EMERGING FROM THE LEFT SIDE AND THE REMAINING SPACE SPLIT IN HALF, WITH WHITE FABRIC ON TOP AND RED ON BOTTOM. FABRIC IS CREASED FROM PREVIOUS FOLDING, WITH SOME MINOR FRAYING ALONG SEAMS VISIBLE AT BACK.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
ASSOCIATIONS
COMMEMORATIVE
History
TRANSFER FROM GALT ARCHIVES. ACQUIRED AS PART OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK CANADIAN CULTURAL SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN ALBERTA FONDS. THIS FLAG BELONGED TO THE CZECHOSLOVAK CANADIAN CULTURAL SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN ALBERTA. THE SOCIETY WAS FOUNDED ON OCTOBER 11, 1978 AND OPERATED UNTIL ITS DISSOLUTION ON APRIL 29, 2008. THE ORGANIZATION PROMOTED THE CONTINUATION OF CZECHOSLOVAK CULTURE THROUGH LANGUAGE CLASSES, PARADES, CHRISTMAS PARTIES, AND BANQUETS, IT ALSO PROVIDED SCHOLARSHIP MONEY TO CHILDREN OF CZECHOSLOVAK ANCESTRY WHO WERE ATTENDING COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION SEE PERMANENT FILE.
Catalogue Number
P20120024003
Acquisition Date
2012-07
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
REPUBLIC OF CHINA KUOMINTANG PARTY
Date Range From
1920
Date Range To
2000
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
RAYON, COTTON
Catalogue Number
P20110031013
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
REPUBLIC OF CHINA KUOMINTANG PARTY
Date Range From
1920
Date Range To
2000
Materials
RAYON, COTTON
No. Pieces
1
Height
111
Length
139.5
Description
RECTANGULAR BLUE RAYON FLAG WITH CENTRAL DESIGN DEPICTING A WHITE CIRCLE BORDERED WITH 12 WHITE TRIANGLES. DESIGN IS VISIBLE ON BOTH SIDES. ONE VERTICAL EDGE OF FLAG HAS A WHITE COTTON SLEEVE SEWN TO IT, WITH WHITE COTTON TIES AT TOP AND BOTTOM. FABRIC IS CREASED IN DISCOLOURED THROUGHOUT. OVERALL GOOD CONDITION.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
ASSOCIATIONS
History
THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT THIS ARTIFACT COMES FROM INTERVIEWS HELD WITH MAY LEE AND JUDY CHAN, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG AND JANICE WONG. PERSONAL DETAILS ABOUT THE LIVES OF MAY LEE, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG THEIR IMMIGRATION TO CANADA ARE FOUND BELOW THE ARTIFACT DETAILS AND BELOW THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY BUILDING. RICHARD INDICATED THAT SOMETIMES A FLAG LIKE THIS WOULD BE FLOWN OUTSIDE OF THE SOCIETY BUILDING: “[THE FLAG’S WERE SOMETIMES FLOWN OUTSIDE] THEY HAD TWO POLES. ONE SIDE IS THE NATIONAL, ONE SIDE IS THE PARTY.” HE ADDED: “YES. ONE ON EACH SIDE – THE NATIONAL ONE SIDE; THE PARTY ONE SIDE, BECAUSE HE STARTED THE PARTY – DR. SUN YAT-SEN. THIS IS SUPPOSED TO BE THE SUN; THAT’S SUPPOSED TO BE THE SKY. THAT’S ALL I CAN TELL YOU." MAY ADDED THAT FLAG REMINDED HER OF THE GUOMINDANG AND THE PARTIES THAT WERE HELD THERE. A SERIES OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD GIVE BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY AND ITS BUILDING: THE BUILDING THAT HOUSED THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY WAS BUILT IN 1909-1910 IN THE 300 BLOCK OF 2 AVENUE SOUTH AND IT WAS ORIGINALLY A RESTAURANT. BY 1915 IT HAD BECOME THE HEADQUARTERS FOR THE LETHBRIDGE BRANCH OF THE KAO MIN TANG (ALTERNATIVE SPELLINGS INCLUDE KUOMINTANG, KUO MIN TANG, GUOMINDANG, AND GUO MIN DANG). THE BUILDING WAS DESIGNATED AS A PROVINCIAL HERITAGE RESOURCE IN 1995 BECAUSE OF ITS VALUE AS A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CENTRE FOR THE LETHBRIDGE CHINESE COMMUNITY. THE BUILDING WAS USED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS BY THE SOCIETY AND INCLUDED, AT VARIOUS TIMES, A RESTAURANT, A SCHOOL, AND LIVING ACCOMODATIONS. IN FEBRUARY 2011 A SECTION OF THE BRICK FAÇADE FELL OFF THE BUILDING AND CITY INSPECTORS DETERMINED THAT THE TIMBER AND RED BRICK STRUCTURE WAS POTENTIALLY UNSTABLE. THE BUILDING WAS TORN DOWN A SHORT TIME LATER. LETHBRIDGE'S CHINATOWN EMERGED IN 1901, A RESULT OF THE CHINESE POPULATION BEING RELEGATED TO A SECTION OF THE CITY BETWEEN GALT GARDENS AND THE COULEES. IN A JANUARY 7, 2002 ARTICLE ALBERT LEONG EXPLAINS THAT NO ONE REALLY WANTED CHINESE PEOPLE AROUND AND THAT “’ THEY WERE TOLD THAT THE ONLY PLACE THEY COULD START BUSINESSES WAS BETWEEN THE COULEES AT THE PARK, BECAUSE THE CITY DIDN’T WANT ANY COMPETITION FOR THE WHITE BUSINESSMEN … BUT ‘GHETTO-IZED’ OR NOT, THE CHINESE WHO CAME TO LETHBRIDGE FORMED AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BACKBONE OF THIS CITY, [AND MADE] NOTEWORTHY [CONTRIBUTIONS] TO THE HISTORY OF THIS PLACE.’” BUSINESSES SUCH AS LAUNDRIES, MARKET GARDENS, AND RESTAURANTS WERE OPENED IN CHINATOWN, WITH THE RESIDENTS LIVING IN ROOMS ABOVE THE BUSINESSES. IN 1912 THERE WERE ABOUT 100 PEOPLE LIVING IN CHINATOWN AND BY THE 1930S, IT WAS A BUSTLING COMMUNITY. THE POPULATION OF CHINATOWN DWINDLED FOLLOWING THE SECOND WORLD WAR. JANICE WONG, PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY IN 2015, GAVE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOCIETY IN AN INTERVIEW: AS OF 2015, THE SOCIETY EXISTS MORE AS A SOCIAL CLUB AND THE SOCIETY HOLDS THREE CELEBRATORY DINNERS EACH YEAR, USUALLY HELD AT THE NEW DYNASTY RESTAURANT. THE SOCIETY ALSO VISITS THE CEMETERY ON A YEARLY BASIS “TO HONOUR THE ANCESTORS, CLEAN THE TOMBS, BRING FOOD, DO THE USUAL THINGS THAT WE USED TO DO – EAT ON GRAVES, BURN THE INCENSE. WE DO THAT EVERY YEAR STILL TO HONOUR OUR ANCESTORS. IT IS USUALLY IN THE SPRING … IN APRIL.” JANICE BRIEFLY DISCUSSED THE FUTURE OF THE SOCIETY, INDICATING THAT THERE IS SOME TALK ABOUT RE-BUILDING “BUT THAT INVOLVES A LOT OF PLANNING, AND MONEY, AND FUNDRAISING” AND SHE QUESTIONS WHETHER OR NOT THERE IS ENOUGH OF A MEMBERSHIP BASE TO GO FORWARD WITH RE-BUILDING. SHE ALSO EXPLAINED THAT PREVIOUS CHINESE IMMIGRANTS HAD TENDED TO COME FROM THE SAME GEOGRAPHIC REGION, BUT THAT PRESENTLY IMMIGRANTS ARE COMING FROM ALL OVER CHINA: “THERE’S A LOT OF INFLUX OF PEOPLE FROM CHINA THAT AREN’T FROM THE SAME AREA, BECAUSE TRADITIONALLY, THE PEOPLE WERE ALL FROM THE SAME AREA AND SPOKE THE SAME DIALECT AND HAD THAT SORT OF THING KEEPING THEM TOGETHER AS A COMMUNITY OVERSEAS FROM CHINA.” PERSONAL DETAILS ABOUT THE LIVES OF MAY LEE, RICHARD LOO, AND HONG WONG AND THEIR IMMIGRATION TO CANADA ARE BELOW: MAY LEE: MAY WAS ACTUALLY BORN IN CANADA AND IS KNOWN AS A GOLD MOUNTAIN GIRL, BECAUSE SHE IS A CANADIAN-BORN CHINESE WOMAN. MAY EXPLAINS: “I WAS BORN IN CANADA. I WAS BORN IN NANOOSE BAY. WHEN I WAS 4 YEARS OLD, WE MOVED TO VICTORIA. WHEN I WAS 9 YEARS OLD AND THE WHOLE FAMILY, IN 1930, GO BACK TO CHINA.” DURING THE WAR, THE JAPANESE BOMBED THE GIRLS’ HIGH SCHOOL IN TOCSIN CITY AND MAY’S MOTHER DECIDED TO SEND MAY AND HER BROTHER TO HONG KONG TO START THE PROCESS OF COMING TO CANADA. MAY STARTED ENGLISH SCHOOL IN HONG KONG, BUT OFTEN MISSED CLASSES BECAUSE SHE WAS SICK FROM THE HEAT. SHE SAYS THAT SHE’S LEARNED MOST OF HER ENGLISH FROM HER HUSBAND, HER CHILDREN, GRANDCHILDREN, AND EVEN GREAT-GRANDCHILDREN. SHE WAS MARRIED TO HOM MEN LEE, AKA JIMMY LEE, ON NOVEMBER 16, 1938 IN VICTORIA, BC. JIMMY WAS BORN IN LETHBRIDGE AT THE GALT HOSPITAL, BUT WAS SENT BACK TO CHINA AS A CHILD FOR HIS EDUCATION. JIMMY’S FAMILY HAD COME TO LETHBRIDGE IN 1914 AND OWNED LEE-DUC CLEANERS. THE LEE FAMILY LIVED ABOVE THE SHOP, WHICH WAS ON 13TH STREET NORTH, NEAR HIGA’S JEWELERS. MAY’S MAIN MEMORY OF CHINATOWN: “ALL I REMEMBER IN CHINATOWN, IN SUMMERTIME, LOTS OF OLD GUYS SITTING IN FRONT OF GUOMINDANG. AUNTIE HELEN GREW UP IN CHINATOWN. I THINK SHE KNOWS MORE ABOUT CHINATOWN. IN THE OLDEN DAYS, I HARDLY GO OUT, JUST TO BUY GROCERIES.” JUDY ADDED THAT MAY HAD 8 CHILDREN AND WAS KEPT BUSY AT HOME RAISING THEM. RICHARD LOO: RICHARD ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1953, HAVING LEFT THE MAINLAND OF CHINA IN 1949. RICHARD’S GRANDFATHER HAD MOVED TO CANADA IN EITHER LATE 1800S OR THE EARLY 1900S AND HAD HAD TO PAY THE HEAD TAX. HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED AS A COOK IN RESTAURANTS, EITHER IN LETHBRIDGE OR IN TABER (ACCORDING TO RICHARD, HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED THROUGH THE WAR YEARS IN TABER). RICHARD’S GRANDFATHER HAD PLANNED ON MOVING BACK TO CHINA WHEN HE RETIRED, BUT THEN THE COMMUNISTS TOOK OVER, AND HE ELECTED TO STAY. AT THAT TIME, HE INVITED RICHARD TO MOVE TO LETHBRIDGE AS WELL. RICHARD LEFT HONG KONG, AFTER LIVING THERE FOR 8 MONTHS, ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON AT 2PM LOCAL TIME. HE FINALLY ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE SUNDAY AFTERNOON. HE WAS LUCKY IN THAT HE WAS ABLE TO GET HIS FLIGHTS ON SALE. NORMALLY A TICKET FROM HONG KONG TO VANCOUVER WOULD HAVE COST $700, BUT RICHARD WAS ABLE TO SECURE A FLIGHT FOR ONLY $500. HE ALSO INDICATED THAT HIS FLIGHT TO LETHBRIDGE WAS ONLY $39.95. ON RECALLING HIS FIRST TIME IN LETHBRIDGE, RICHARD RECOUNTED THE FOLLOWING STORY: “SO, BY THE TIME I GOT TO THE AIRPORT, I DIDN’T KNOW HOW TO SAY NOTHING. DIDN’T KNOW – MAYBE COULD SAY ‘GOOD MORNING’ – THAT’S ALL YOU COULD SAY, JUST ANYWAYS HOW TO SAY ‘HELLO’ – SO, ANYWAY, SO IN THE MEANTIME, THE FELLOW AT THE AIRPORT MUST HAVE KNOWN ZEKE, YOU KNOW ZEKE QUAN [OWNER OF] THE LOTUS INN [RESTAURANT], AND HE PHONED HIM UP. HE SAYS, ‘ZEKE.’ I DIDN’T KNOW WHAT HE WAS TALKING ABOUT – NOTHING. AND THEN HE SAYS, ‘HEY, THIS IS A CHINA BOY HERE. WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO WITH HIM?’ SO, ZEKE SAYS, ‘OH, JUST TAKE HIM TO CHINATOWN AND DUMP HIM.’ NOW, I DIDN’T KNOW THOSE, NOT UNTIL LATER ON. ZEKE’S SON GO TO SAME SCHOOL I DID – CENTRAL SCHOOL.” RICHARD INITIALLY LIVED IN THE SOCIETY BUILDING FOR SEVERAL YEARS, OCCUPYING A ROOM THAT HAD BEEN RECENTLY VACATED BY ANOTHER MAN NAMED LOO WHO HAD GONE TO WORK IN PICTURE BUTTE. RICHARD RECALLED THAT THE SOCIETY WAS A GOOD PLACE TO FEEL A SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND THAT IT WAS A WELCOMING PLACE FOR NEW CHINESE IMMIGRANTS, A PLACE WHERE THEY WEREN’T DISCRIMINATED AGAINST. HONG WONG: HONG ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1951 AND WAS INVITED TO THE CITY BY HIS UNCLE SHUEY WONG, WHO WAS ALREADY LIVING HERE. UNCLE SHUEY HAD COME TO CANADA SEVERAL YEARS BEFORE AND HAD HAD TO PAY THE $500 HEAD TAX. HONG TRAVELED WITH HIS BROTHER FROM MAINLAND CHINA TO HONG KONG, IN ORDER TO GO TO THE CANADIAN EMBASSY. ON HIS FERRY RIDE TO HONG KONG, HE WAS SHOT BY BANDITS AND WAS REQUIRED TO STAY IN THE HOSPITAL FOR QUITE SOME TIME TO RECOVER. HIS BROTHER ELECTED TO REMAIN IN HONG KONG, AS HIS MOTHER-IN-LAW LIVED IN THE CITY AND GOT HONG’S BROTHER WORK IN A THEATRE. TO GET TO CANADA, HONG FLEW FROM JAPAN TO GUAM, TO VANCOUVER, AND THEN FINALLY TO LETHBRIDGE. HIS FIRST IMPRESSION OF LETHBRIDGE: COLD. HONG SAID: “’WELL, IN HONG KONG IT WAS AROUND MAYBE 20 SOME 30 ABOVE. AND HERE, AT THAT TIME, MAYBE 20 BELOW, OR 20 SOME BELOW. I DIDN’T HAVE THE EAR MUFFS. I SAID, ‘GEE, I’M NOT SO HAPPY HERE, IT SEEMS SO COLD.’” UNCLE SHUEY TOLD HONG THAT IT WAS ONE OF THE COLDEST WINTERS HE COULD REMEMBER. HONG WORKED FOR HIS UNCLE IN HIS SHOP ON 9TH AVENUE, DOING CHORES AROUND THE STORE, UNTIL HIS ENGLISH HAD IMPROVED ENOUGH SO THAT HE COULD SERVE CUSTOMERS. HE JOINED THE CHINESE NATIONALIST LEAGUE SOCIETY ALMOST AS SOON AS HE ARRIVED: “WHEN I CAME HERE, I JOINED IN THE SAME YEAR BECAUSE MY UNCLE WAS A MEMBER. SO THAT’S WHY HE GOT ME IN TO BE A MEMBER. OH, AT THAT TIME, I BET, 95% OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE THEY BELONG TO THE CHINESE NATIONAL LEAGUE, I BELIEVE.” HE CONTINUED, SAYING THAT YOU COULDN’T BE A MEMBER OF BOTH THE SOCIETY AND THE MASONS, AND HE BELIEVES ABOUT 5% OF THE CITY’S CHINESE POPULATION WOULD HAVE BELONGED TO THE MASONS. HE ADDED: “BUT WE ARE STILL FRIENDS, STILL FRIENDS. WE’RE NOT ENEMY OR ANYTHING BUT, IT’S JUST THAT THE ORGANIZATIONS ARE DIFFERENT. THAT’S ALL.” HONG ENJOYED THE CAMARADERIE OF THE SOCIETY. HE SAID: “I REMEMBER, I LIKE IT BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE PARTY AND SO MANY PEOPLE. AND THEN YOU MEET ALL THE CHINESE PEOPLE THERE IN THE ONE GROUP. WELL, ANYWAY, WHEN YOU SEE SO MANY PEOPLE IN ONE PARTY, AND THEN WHEN THEY COME OUT MOSTLY THE PEOPLE THAT PARTY AND IT FEELS LIKE A LOTS OF FRIENDS OR EVEN LIKE THE FAMILY. SO YOU FEEL GOOD, YOU FEEL BETTER, AND THEN, WELL, MY UNCLE BELONGS THERE TOO AND THEN THE OTHERS BELONG THERE TOO, YEAH, EVERYBODY LIKE IN THE BIG FAMILY. YES, NICE, OTHERWISE YOU DON’T HAVE ANY FRIENDS, YOU DON’T MEET ANYBODY, IF YOU NOT BELONG THERE, I THINK NOT SO FRIENDLY TO YOU.” HONG INDICATED THAT WHEN A SPECIAL MEAL WAS HELD AT THE SOCIETY, IT WAS THE MEN WHO DID THE COOKING: “AT THAT TIME JUST ABOUT EVERYBODY KNOWS HOW TO COOK BECAUSE MOSTLY WE WORK IN THE KITCHEN WHEN THEY CAME HERE.” HE SAID THAT DINERS WOULD PAY A SMALL FEE TO EAT AT THE LEAGUE WHEN SPECIAL MEALS WERE PUT ON. SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR COPIES OF LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARTICLES AND FOR INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS.
Catalogue Number
P20110031013
Acquisition Date
2011-11
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail

24 records – page 1 of 3.