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Other Name
POLICE CROWN GRAFLEX CAMERA CASE
Date Range From
1960
Date Range To
1970
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
PRESSED PAPER, STEEL, PLASTIC
Catalogue Number
P19960112062
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
POLICE CROWN GRAFLEX CAMERA CASE
Date Range From
1960
Date Range To
1970
Materials
PRESSED PAPER, STEEL, PLASTIC
No. Pieces
22
Height
25
Length
44.5
Width
22.7
Description
GREY PRESSED PAPER CASE WITH BLACK STEEL REINFORCED CORNERS. HINGED LID WITH THREE CLASPS AT FRONT; LOCK AT CENTRE. LEATHER CARRYING HANDLE AT TOP OF CASE MARKED "LETH POLICE" ACROSS TOP; "CITY POLICE IDENTIFICATION BRANCH" STAMPED ON ADHESIVE LABEL BELOW. SCRATCHED INTO TOP RIGHT CORNER "OP2-007-073-004". INTERIOR OF CASE DIVIDED INTO FIVE COMPARTMENTS, WHICH CONTAIN THE FOLLOWING: .1 NINE 4 X 5 FILM HOLDERS. INCLUDE FOUR BLACK "RITEWAY" GRAPHIC FILM HOLDER WITH PLASTIC FRAME AND TWO PULL-OUT PANELS IN EACH. ALSO FOUR "FIDELITY DELUXE FIDELITY CUT FILM HOLDER OF SAME STYLE, AND ONE "LISCO REGAL" "LISCO CUT FILM HOLDER" ALSO OF SAME STYLE. ALL ARE SCRATCHED SLIGHTLY THROUGHOUT. .2 CAMERA. BROWN LEATHER CASE WITH "ANSCO" IN GOLD LETTERS ON LENS CAP SECTION. BLUE ADHESIVE LABEL ON TOP OF CASE WITH "CITY POLICE IDENTIFICATION BRANCH". CASE OPENS BY SNAP ON FLAP; SMALL LEATHER CARRYING STRAP AFFIXED BY SIDE RINGS. CONTAINS 35MM CAMERA, FIXED TO CASE BY MEANS OF THREADED BOLT AT BOTTOM. BACK OF CAMERA OPENS; "AV 4286" STAMPED ON LOWER RIGHT INSIDE CORNER. BASE READS "MADE FOR ANSCO BY AGFA CAMERA WERK AG MUNCHEN GERMANY BY ANSCO-GAF". LENS MARKED "AGFA APOTAR..". INCLUDES FOLDED FILM INSTRUCTIONS. .3 PRINT COATER. WHITE CARDBOARD RECTANGULAR BOX WITH HOLE THROUGH CENTRE OF TWO SIDES. CONTAINS TWO BLACK PLASTIC VIALS WITH WHITE PLASTIC LIDS. MARKED ON SIDES IS "FOR BLACK AND WHITE PICTURES ONLY" AND "POLAROID PRINT COATER". EACH CONTAINS LONG SPONGE DAMP WITH DEVELOPING SOLUTION. .4 SET OF TWO IDENTICAL ALUMINUM BRACKETS. CONSIST OF LOOPED BAND CONNECTED TO RECTANGULAR-SHAPED BASE WITH THREADED BOLT FIXED ACROSS INTERIOR. .5 SET OF TWO IDENTICAL COILED BLACK CORDS (RUBBER COATED). TWO-PRONG PLUG AT ONE END, WITH HEAD FOR ROUND OUTLET AT OTHER END. "H" MARKED ON PLUG. .6 UNKNOWN DEVICE. GREY PLASTIC DISC WITH LARGE FLATHEAD BOLT AT TOP. BELOW IS STEEL SHANK, WITH POINTED END. .7 UNKNOWN DEVICE. STEEL CYLINDRICAL VIAL WITH FOUR HOLES PERFORATED AROUND LOWER END; ENGRAVED "GRAFLEX #2" WITH U.S. PATENT NUMBERS LISTED. THREADED LID WITH TINY HOOK FOR HANGING; INSIDE LID FIXED WITH STEEL SHANK WITH WIRE SPRING AROUND. EXTERIOR OF LID IS SERRATED VERTICALLY. .8 CLEAR PLASTIC PILL CONTAINER; WHITE LID. CONTAINS THREE PIECES WHITE CHALK. .9 KEY. CIRCULAR LOOP AT HEAD; HOLLOW SHANK. STEEL.
Subjects
PHOTOGRAPHIC T&E
Historical Association
SAFETY SERVICES
History
FROM LETHBRIDGE POLICE COLLECTION. CASE IS FOR CROWN GRAFLEX CAMERA, ISSUED TO DETECTIVE GLEN B. MICHELSON IN 1961 BY ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE IDENTIFICATION BRANCH. MICHELSON JOINED LETH. CITY POLICE IN 1950, AND WAS PROMOTED TO DETECTIVE IN 1957. IN 1961 HE ATTENDED A SEVEN-WEEK TRAINING COURSE AT THE ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE IDENTIFICATION BRANCH SCHOOL IN OTTAWA, WHERE CAMERA WAS ISSUED. CAMERA WAS STANDARD EQUIPMENT OF ALL ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE IDENT BRANCHES IN CANADA. WHEN MICHELSON RETURNED TO LETHBRIDGE HE SET UP THE CITY POLICE'S FIRST IDENT BRANCH, AND WORKED AS A QUALIFIED FINGERPRINT TECHNICIAN. THE ANSCO CAMERA WAS ALSO AMONG HIS EARLY EQUIPMENT, AND WAS USED AT CRIME SCENES ETC., THOUGH THE CROWN GRAFLEX WAS THE MORE COMMONLY USED CAMERA. ALTHOUGH THE CASE WAS DONATED TO MUSEUM BY POLICE, THE CAMERA ITSELF REMAINS (03/00) AT THE POLICE STATION. WAS IN USE FOR OVER 20 YEARS. THE CROWN GRAFLEX CAMERA WAS THE FIRST PIECE OF EQUIPMENT ACQUIRED FOR THE NEW INVESTIGATIVE BRANCH IN 1961. STANDARD TO EVERY ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE IDENTIFICATION BRANCH AT THE TIME, THE CAMERA TOOK HIGH QUALITY PHOTOS OF FINGERPRINTS AND CRIME SCENES. THE SMALLER ANSCO CAMERA WAS ALSO USEFUL FOR ACCIDENT AND CRIME SCENES. *UPDATE* IN 2014 COLLECTIONS ASSISTANT JANE EDMUNDSON CONDUCTED A SURVEY OF ART OBJECTS, INCLUDING SOME DONATED BY THE CITY OF LETHBRIDGE POLICE SERVICES. FOR A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE LETHBRIDGE POLICE COLLECTION, SEE RECORD P19960112001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE CITY OF LETHBRIDGE POLICE SERVICES AND TRANSCRIPTS OF INTERVIEWS AND CORRESPONDENCE WITH CURRENT AND FORMER LETHBRIDGE POLICE, SEE PERMANENT FILE P19960112000.
Catalogue Number
P19960112062
Acquisition Date
1996-12
Collection
Museum
Less detail
Other Name
"GRAFLEX - CROWN GRAPHIC"
Date Range From
1961
Date Range To
1985
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
PLASTIC, METAL, GLASS
Catalogue Number
P20080008013
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
"GRAFLEX - CROWN GRAPHIC"
Date Range From
1961
Date Range To
1985
Materials
PLASTIC, METAL, GLASS
No. Pieces
2
Height
21.2
Length
26.0
Width
18.2
Description
CAMERA, FOLDING. HARD, BLACK PLASTIC CASE WITH VIIEWFINDER WINDOW. FRONT PANEL FOLDS DOWN TO REVEAL AN EXPANDABLE, ACCORDION FOLD, CAMERA LENSE. LENSE MOVES BACK AND FORTH ON METAL TRACKS. VARIOUS HOOKS AND KNOBS ON SIDE AND BACK OF CASE. FRONT OF CASE MARKED "GRAFLEX" ON SILVER COLORED PLAQUE. FRONT OF CAMERA MARKED, "CROWN GRAPHIC... SYNCHRO COMPUR." FRONT OF CASE DOES NOT CLOSE.
Subjects
PHOTOGRAPHIC T&E
Historical Association
SAFETY SERVICES
History
THIS CROWN GRAFLEX CAMERA WAS THE FIRST PIECE OF EQUIPMENT ACQUIRED FOR THE NEW INVESTIGATIVE BRANCH IN 1961. IT WAS STANDARD TO EVERY RCMP IDENTIFICATION BRANCH AT THE TIME, THE CAMERA TOOK HIGH QUALITY PHOTOS OF FINGERPRINTS AND CRIPME SCENES, AND WAS USED LOCALLY FOR OVER TWENTY YEARS. RETIRED SUPERINTENDENT IN CHARGE OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE LETHBRIDGE CITY POLICE, GLEN MICHELSON, WROTE A LETTER TO EXPLAIN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDENTIFICATION DEPARTMENT WHICH RELIED HEAVILY ON THE USE OF THE CAMERA. SEE BELOW: "IDENTIFICATION RECORDS (FINGERPRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHY) OF PRISONERS WAS STARTED BY THE LETHBRIDGE CITY POLICE IN 1931 BY DETECTIVE SYD WALLIS. COPIES OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND FINGERPRINTS WERE DISTRIBUTED TO OTHER POLICE FORCES BY MUTUAL AGREEMENT IN THESE EARLY YEARS. THEN LATER A COPY OF THE FINGERPRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS WERE FORWARDED TO THE R.C.M. POLICE, A NATIONAL POLICE SERVICE, IDENTIFICATION BRANCH AT THEIR OTTAWA HEADQUARTERS FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL POLICE FORCES IN CANADA AND IN OTHER COUNTRIES AS WELL. LETHBRIDGE CITY POLICE HAVE MAINTAINED AN EXCELLENT COLLECTION OF IDENTIFICATION RECORDS (FINGERPRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS) SINCE THAT TIME. I STARTED MY CAREER IN LAW ENFORCEMENT APRIL 14TH, 1947 BY JOINING THE R.C.M. POLICE FORCE IN LETHBRIDGE. I TRAINED IN REGINA AND ROCKCLIFFE “N” DIVISION HEADQUARTERS NEAR OTTAWA. I PURCHASED MY DISCHARGE FROM THAT FORCE JULY 31ST, 1950. I JOINED THE LETHBRIDGE CITY POLICE FORCE AUGUST 29TH, 1950 UNDER THEN CHIEF GEORGE HARVEY. I RETIRED FROM THE CITY POLICE FORCE JULY 31ST, 1984. WHILE ON DUTY IN THE COMPLAINT OFFICE I BECOME INTERESTED IN FINGERPRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHY. I CONSIDERED THE IDENTIFICATION OF CRIMINALS ACT IN THE CRIMINAL CODE TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS. AS I MENTIONED, THIS HAD BEEN STARTED BY SYD WALLIS, DETECTIVE) IN 1931. I STARTED FINGERPRINTING AND PHOTOGRAPHING PRISONERS, ALSO DEVELOPING PICTURES IN A SMALL CLOSET LIKE DARK ROOM HARDLY SUITABLE FOR THAT PURPOSE IN THE BASEMENT OF THE OLD POLICE STATION, 5TH ST. & 5TH AVE. SOUTH, LETHBRIDGE. I STARTED PLAIN CLOTHES (DETECTIVE) WORK IN 1957 AND TAKING A FEW PICTURES AT CRIME SCENES. I OBTAINED GOOD INFORMATION AND INSTRUCTIONS FROM TWO WELL KNOWN PHOTOGRAPHERS IN LETHBRIDGE, DR. VICTOR SPACKMAN, AND NEILS KLOPENBERG. THEY WAS MORE THAN WILLING TO GIVE ME HELP. FOR ANY MAJOR CRIME SCENES WE CALLED THE R.C.M. POLICE IDENTIFICATION OFFICER TO TAKE FINGERPRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. THEY HAD A IDENTIFICATION BRANCH AT THE R.C.M. POLICE SUB-DIVISION OFFICE IN LETHBRIDGE. THIS OFFICER WAS ALWAYS WILLING TO GIVE US ASSISTANCE. ON FEBRUARY 27TH, 1961 UNTIL APRIL 14TH, 1961, I ATTENDED THE ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE IDENTIFICATION BRANCH SCHOOL IN OTTAWA AT THEIR HEADQUARTERS, (CLASS NUMBER 22). THIS COURSE OF INSTRUCTION INCLUDED FINGERPRINTS, PHOTOGRAPHY AND OTHER METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION, FOR ANY CRIME SCENE OR ACCIDENT REQUIRING POLICE INVESTIGATION. I WAS THE FIRST LETHBRIDGE CITY POLICE MEMBER TO ATTEND SUCH A CLASS. I RETURNED TO LETHBRIDGE AND SET UP THE FIRST CITY POLICE IDENTIFICATION BRANCH, AN OFFICE, WORK ROOM AND DARK ROOM, COMPLETE WITH FINGERPRINT FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT, CAMERAS AND CROWN GRAFLEX CAMERA TO TAKE PICTURES ANYWHERE, THEN TO DEVELOP THEM AND BE JUDGED ON OUR WORK, THE OFFICIAL OPENING OF THE NEW POLICE STATION ADDITION WAS IN SEPT. 1963. I ENJOYED CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS AND DOING THE IDENTIFICATION WORK AT CRIME SCENES AND PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENES AND OTHERS THAT REQUIRED INVESTIGATION. IN MY VIEW IT WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT POLICE WORK AND IT WOULD GIVE ME GREAT SATISFACTION IF I COULD LOCATE A FINGERPRINT LEFT AT A CRIME SCENE THAT WOULD IDENTIFY THE PERSON BEING THERE, OR FIND ANY OTHER PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AT THE CRIME SCENE THAT WAS CONNECTED TO THE OFFENDER. I DID HAVE GREAT SUCCESS IN FINGERPRINTING AND WAS ABLE TO PHOTOGRAPH THE FINGERPRINTS AT CRIME SCENES, AND PROCESS THEM READY FOR COURT. I WAS ABLE TO QUALIFY MYSELF AS A FINGERPRINT EXPERT IN JUVENILE COURT, MAGISTRATES COURT AND ALBERTA SUPREME COURT (NOW CALLED COURT OF QUEENS BENCH.) I ALSO GAVE EVIDENCE AT CORONERS INQUESTS IN FINGERPRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHY. FINGERPRINT EVIDENCE IS THE MOST COMMON, MOST SOUGHT AFTER, POSITIVE AND VALUABLE OF ALL TYPES OF EVIDENCE ENCOUNTERED IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS. THE FINDING OF A FINGERPRINT, HOWEVER AT THE CRIME SCENE IS NOT PROOF OF GUILT BY ITSELF, NOR ANY INDICATION OF GUILT UNTIL ALL THE ELEMENTS AND FACTS OF THE CASE ARE CONSIDERED, BUT IT PROVES THE PRESENCE AT THE SCENE OF THE OFFENCE OF THE PERSON WHO MADE THE FINGERPRINT IMPRESSION. THE PRESENCE OF THAT PERSON AT THE SCENE OF THE OFFENCE CANNOT BE REFUTED OR DENIED. IT MAY BE ALIBIED BUT IT IS POSITIVE AS TO HIS OR HER PRESENCE WHETHER OR NOT THAT PRESENCE WAS LEGITIMATE. FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION IS BASED ON THE ACCEPTED FACT THAT NO TWO FINGERPRINTS HAVE EVER BEEN FOUND TO BE IDENTICAL IN EVERY DETAIL. ONLY ONE PERSON AND ONLY ONE FINGER OF THAT PERSON CAN MAKE A GIVEN IMPRESSION, THE IMPRESSION CANNOT BE DUPLICATED BY ANY OTHER FINGER IN THE WORLD. IT WAS GRATIFYING AND AN HONOUR TO BE NAMED AS A FINGERPRINT EXAMINER BY THE SOLICITOR GENERAL OF CANADA IN THE CANADA GAZETTE APRIL 11TH, 1970. THIS WAS ANOTHER FIRST FOR THE LETHBRIDGE CITY POLICE. THIS WAS PURSUANT TO SECTION 594 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE OF CANADA. I ALSO ATTENDED AN ADVANCED IDENTIFICATION SERVICES FIELD SEMINAR HELD AT MYNARSKI PARK, PENHOLD ALBERTA ON OCT. 15TH, 1971. ALSO AN INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR IDENTIFICATION CONFERENCE AND SEMINAR AT BOISE IDAHO, USA IN MAY 1982 ON IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES. AFTER I WAS PROMOTED TO THE OFFICER IN CHARGE OF THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION BRANCH, OTHER MEMBERS OF THE FORCE WERE SELECTED TO ATTEND THE R.C.M. POLICE IDENTIFICATION COURSE IN OTTAWA. THE IDENTIFICATION SECTION HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE LETHBRIDGE CITY POLICE FORCE. D.N.A. EVIDENCE IS NOW CONSIDERED TO BE IMPORTANT AND CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE IN IDENTIFICATION WORK." FOR MORE INFORMATION SEE PERMANENT FILE. CAMERA CASE WAS PREVIOUSLY ACCESSIONED. SEE P19960112062.
Catalogue Number
P20080008013
Acquisition Date
2007-01
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
BUTSUGU
Date Range From
1963
Date Range To
2007
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
VARIOUS
Catalogue Number
P20070020001
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
BUTSUGU
Date Range From
1963
Date Range To
2007
Materials
VARIOUS
No. Pieces
106
Description
BUPPANKI: A. CUP, BRASS, HEIGHT 12.0, WIDTH 9.7. JAPANESE NAME IS, “BUPPANKI,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “BUDDHA FOOD VESSEL.” KANJI CHARACTERS ON BOTTOM, READ, “DONOR, MR. DONJI OMATSU.” 1 PCE. B. CUP, BRASS, HEIGHT 12.5, WIDTH 10.5. JAPANESE NAME IS, “BUPPANKI,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “BUDDHA FOOD VESSEL.” 1 PCE. BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO-BAKO: C. WOODEN BOX, BLACK LACQUER WITH GOLD TRIM, HEIGHT 13.0, LENGTH 32.5, WIDTH 11.8. PAINT ON BOX SEVERELY BLISTERED. JAPANESE NAME IS, “BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO-BAKO,” WHICH MEANS BOX FOR BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO. TWO SYMBOLS ON BOX LID, THE JODO SHINSHU CREST AND KIRI. 2 PCES. CANDLE SNUFFER: D. BRASS CANDLE SNUFFER, INNER DOME OF SNUFFER BLACK WITH WAX RESIDUE, HEIGHT 4.5, LENGTH 28.5, WIDTH 3.0. 1 PCE. FLAG POLE: E. WOODEN FLAG POLE, LOWER SECTION RIBBED AND PAINTED BLACK, UPPER SECTION STAINED DARK RED, SEVERAL METAL BANDS AFFIXED TO BOTTOM, TOP AND MID SECTION OF POLE, 2 RINGS PROTRUDE FROM TOP-MOST METAL BANDS, ALLOWING FOR ATTACHMENT OF FLAG. LENGTH 187.5, DIAMETER 4.5. 1 PCE. GOBUNSHO-BAKO: F. WOODEN BOX, BLACK LACQUER WITH GOLD TRIM, HEIGHT 5.8, LENGTH 30.8, WIDTH 26.0. JAPANESE NAME IS, “GOBUNSHO-BAKO,” WHICH MEANS BOX FOR GOBUNSHO, A BOOK. TWO SYMBOLS ON BOX LID, THE JODO SHINSHU CREST AND KIRI. 2 PCES. GOKUDEN: G. GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN HOUSE-LIKE STRUCTURE WITH JAPANESE ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS, COMPRISED OF 2 PCES, TTL HEIGHT 218, LENGTH 167, WIDTH 102. JAPANESE NAME IS, “GOKUDEN,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “AMIDA BUDDHA’S HOUSE.” BOTTOM PIECE HAS ALCOVE IN WHICH GOHONZON IS PLACED, FLOOR OF ALCOVE PAINTED BLACK, 2 PILLARS ON EITHER SIDE OF ALCOVE, MARKED, “NAIJIN #4,” IN BLACK MARKER ON BACK. TOP PIECE IS ROOF-LIKE STRUCTURE WITH LIGHT-BULB FIXTURE AFFIXED TO UNDERSIDE OF ROOF WITH CORD. SURFACE OF BOTH PIECES DECORATED WITH ETCHED BRASS PLATES OF THE JODO SHINSHU CREST AND CARVED WOODEN RELIEF OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS, A BIRD, AND DRAGON-LIKE ANIMALS. 2 PCES. CONSERVATION TREATMENT PERFORMED ON GOKUDEN IN 2009. FOR DETAILS, PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE. KAHIN: H. VASE, BRONZE, SET OF 2, EACH SET CONTAINS 3 PCES, HEIGHT 26.3, DIAMETER, 22.0. JAPANESE NAME IS, “KAHIN,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “FLOWER-VASE.” KAHIN CONSISTS OF CYLINDRICAL BASE, THE TOP OF THE VASE WIDER THAN THE BASE, WITH TWO SMALL HOOKS PROJECTING FROM EITHER SIDE. TWO DECORATIVE HANDLES RESEMBLING DRAGON HEADS WITH TONGUES STICKING OUT ATTACH TO HOOKS. SURFACE OF KAHIN DECORATED THROUGHOUT. MARKINGS ON BOTTOM ARE CHINESE CHARACTERS, WHICH READ, “TIME, HEAVEN, TRANSMISSION, AND MANY.” 6 PCES TTL. I. VASE, BRONZE, HEIGHT 19.0, DIAMETER 15.6. JAPANESE NAME IS, “KAHIN,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “FLOWER-VASE.” CONSISTS OF CYLINDRICAL BASE, TOP OF VASE WIDER THAN THE BASE. TWO HOOKS PROJECT FROM EITHER SIDE OF VASE, PRESUMABLY DECORATIVE OBJECTS WOULD HOOK HERE. 1 PCE. KASHA: J. INCENSE BURNER WITH LID, BRONZE, HEIGHT 18.0, WIDTH 13.0, 3 PCES. JAPANESE NAME IS, “KASHA,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “FIREHOUSE.” BASE PIECE IS BOWL-SHAPED WITH THREE SHORT LEGS MADE TO RESEMBLE DRAGON HEADS, SURFACE OF KASHA DECORATED THROUGHOUT. 2 CIRCULAR SHELVES PROJECT HORIZONTALLY FROM BASE, HENCE OBJECT ALSO KNOWN AS DOUBLE-TIERED INCENSE BURNER. MIDDLE PIECE IS DISH THAT SITS WITHIN BASE PIECE. TOP PIECE IS LID, DECORATIVE SURFACE AND OPENINGS IN LID. 3 PCES. KEBYO: K. VASE, BRONZE, SET OF TWO, HEIGHT 18.7, DIAMETER 9.5. JAPANESE NAME IS, “KEBYO,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO “FLOWER-VASE.” VASE NARROWEST JUST AFTER BASE, WIDEST AT 2/3 HEIGHT, SURFACE OF VASE DECORATED THROUGHOUT. ASIAN TEXT ON BOTTOM. FOUND WITHIN ONE KEBYO IS YELLOW PACKAGE OF PLANT FOOD WITH RED ELASTIC AROUND IT (HEIGHT 1.0, LENGTH 7.0, WIDTH 5.0), PACKAGE LABELED, “CRYSTAL CLEAR UNIVERSAL,” ON FRONT AND DIRECTIONS LISTED ON BACK. THIS KEBYO IS HEAVILY CORRODED INSIDE, AND FRAGMENTS ARE CONTAINED WITHIN PLASTIC BAGGIE. 4 PCES. KIKU-RINTO: L. HANGING LANTERN, BRASS, SET OF TWO, EACH SET CONTAINS 14 PIECES, TOTAL HEIGHT 102.5, WIDTH 41.5. JAPANESE NAME IS, “KIKU-RINTO,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “CHRYSANTHEMUM CIRCULAR-LAMP.” BOTTOM PIECE IS DISH WITH SCALLOPED EDGES. TWO INCREASINGLY SMALLER SIMILAR DISHES SIT INSIDE. LIGHT BULB AND FIXTURE SIT IN THIS SMALLEST DISH, WITH ELECTRICAL CORD RUNNING ALONG LENGTH OF LANTERN TOWARDS CEILING. SEMI-CIRCULAR BAND DECORATED WITH CHRYSANTHEMUM FLOWERS ARCHES OVER DISHES, ATTACHES TO BOTTOM-MOST DISH WITH TWO PEGS. HOOK. ATTACHING TO TOP OF SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH IS LONG HOOK WITH SHELF-LIKE PROJECTION. SITTING ON SHELF IS LARGE DISH, BOWL FACING FLOOR, WITH WIDE LIP AND SCALLOPED EDGES. TWO METAL DISCS SIT ON TOP OF DISH, BOTTOM-MOST DISH HAS DECORATIVE SPOKES RADIATING FROM CENTRE POINT, TOP-MOST DISC RESEMBLES A FLOWER. DOORKNOB-LIKE OBJECT WITH CLOVER-LEAF SHAPED HANDLE IS FINAL PIECE TO SIT ON SHELF, AND PEG SECURES ALL THESE PIECES TOGETHER (PRESUMABLY PEGS FOR THESE KIKU-RINTOS ARE THOSE CATALOGUED UNDER P20070020002). VERTICAL BRASS PLATE DECORATED WITH CHRYSANTHEMUMS ATTACHES TO TOP OF DOORKNOB-LIKE OBJECT. SINGLE CHAIN LINK ATTACHED TO TOP HOOK OF VERTICAL BRASS PLATE. CHAIN WOULD THEN BE USED TO HANG ENTIRE STRUCTURE FROM CEILING. 28 PCES TTL. KORO: M. INCENSE BURNER, BRONZE WITH GOLD JODO SHINSHU CREST, SET OF 3, HEIGHT 9.3, DIAMETER 12.6. JAPANESE NAME IS, “KORO,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “INCENSE BURNER.” KORO IS BOWL-SHAPED WITH THREE SHORT LEGS. 3 PCES TTL. N. INCENSE BURNER WITH LID, BRONZE, HEIGHT 18.3, WIDTH 21.0. JAPANESE NAME IS KORO, WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “INCENSE BURNER.” BASE PIECE IS BOWL-SHAPED WITH TWO WING-LIKE HANDLES AND THREE SHORT LEGS MADE TO RESEMBLE DRAGON HEADS. LID HAS SCULPTURE OF MYTHICAL CHINESE DRAGON ON TOP WITH DECORATIVE OPENINGS ALONG SIDE OF LID. 2 PCES. MAE-JOKU: O. GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN TABLE, SCROLL LEGS REST ON A RECTANGULAR FRAME, DECORATED WITH CARVED PATTERNS AND ETCHED BRASS PLATES. SIDES AND FRONT OF TABLE DECORATED WITH CARVED WOODEN RELIEFS OF DRAGONS, AND VARIOUS BIRDS AND FLOWERS PAINTED BLUE, GREEN, WHITE, PINK AND GOLD. HEIGHT 85.0, LENGTH 167.0, WIDTH 56.0. JAPANESE NAME IS, “MAE-JOKU,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “FRONT TABLE.” TWO BLACK PAINTED WOODEN DOORS FIT INTO SLOTS IN BACK COMPARTMENT OF MAE-JOKU, DOORS SLIDE TO REVEAL STORAGE SPACE. 3 PCE. CONSERVATION TREATMENT PERFORMED ON MAE-JOKU IN 2009. FOR DETAILS, PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE. ROSOKU-TATE: P. CANDLE-STICK HOLDERS, BRONZE, SET OF 2, EACH SET CONTAINS 4 PCES, HEIGHT 39.2, WIDTH 10.8. JAPANESE NAME IS, “ROSOKU-TATE,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “CANDLE-STICK HOLDER.” SHAFT OF BASE PIECE HAS UNDULATING STRUCTURE. TWO HOOKS ON UPPER PART OF BASE SUPPORT TWO SMALL DECORATIVE DRAGONS. TOP PIECE DISH-SHAPED TO COLLECT WAX, SCREWS INTO SHAFT. 8 PCES TTL. Q. CANDLE-STICK HOLDER, BRONZE, HEIGHT 28.8, WIDTH 10.5. JAPANESE NAME IS, “ROSOKU-TATE,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “CANDLE-STICK HOLDER.” BASE PIECE NARROWS BEFORE WIDENING OUT INTO A LOTUS FLOWER BUD. SECOND PIECE FITS WITHIN TOP OF BUD, TWO WING-LIKE DECORATIONS PROJECT VERTICALLY FROM EITHER SIDE. TOP PIECE DISH-SHAPED TO COLLECT WAX AND PLACE FOR CANDLESTICK TO AFFIX, SCREWS INTO SECOND PIECE. CHINESE MARKING ON BOTTOM TRANSLATE ROUGHLY TO, “COMING” AND “TRANSMISSION.” 4 PCES. SHUMIDAN: R. BLACK PAINTED WOODEN STRUCTURE WITH RED TRIM, DECORATED WITH ETCHED BRASS PLATES AND CARVED, GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN RELIEFS OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS AND DRAGONS. TTL HEIGHT 124, LENGTH 197, WIDTH 105. JAPANESE NAME IS, “SHIMUDAN.” BOTTOM PIECE MARKED, “NAIJIN BASE #1,” IN BLACK MARKER ON UNDERSIDE, WHITE-PAINTED WOODEN PIECE RUNS HORIZONTALLY ALONG BOTTOM LENGTH OF STRUCTURE. MIDDLE PIECE MARKED, “NAIJIN BASE #2” IN BLACK MARKER ON UNDERSIDE, CONTAINS MAJORITY OF CARVED GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN RELIEFS, THIS PIECE IS NARROWEST SECTION OF SHIMUDAN. TOP PIECE MARKED, “NAIJIN BASE #3,” IN BLACK MARKER ON UNDERSIDE, THE PIECE WIDENS OUT SUCH THAT OVERALL SHIMUDAN SHAPED LIKE FLATTENED SPOOL. ONTOP OF SHIMUDAN ARE 4 RED-PAINTED WOODEN FENCE-LIKE STRUCTURE WITH 4 GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN SPOOLS THAT SIT ON PEG ON EACH FENCE. LONG AND SHORT FENCE PCES AFFIX TO GIVE TWO L-SHAPED STRUCTURES, WHICH THEN SLOT INTO TO SURFACE OF SHIMUDAN ALONG SIDES AND PART OF FRONT. 11 PCES. TASSLE: S. PURPLE CORD, KNOTTED IN DECORATIVE WAY, TASSLES ON EITHER END, METAL SAFETY PIN AND WIRE AFFIXED TO TOP, LENGTH 33.8, WIDTH 18.5, HEIGHT 2.5. 1 PCE. TSURI TORO: T. HANGING LANTERN, GOLD-PAINTED COPPER, SET OF 2, EACH SET CONTAINS 6 PCES, TOTAL HEIGHT 43.7, WIDTH 34.5. JAPANESE NAME IS TSURI TORO, WHICH TRANSLATES TO “HANGING LANTERN.” SURFACE OF BOTTOM AND TOP PIECE ORNATELY ETCHED WITH DECORATIVE CUT-OUTS, ALLOWING LIGHT FROM LANTERN TO SHINE THROUGH. BOTTOM PIECE IS HEXAGONAL BASE RESTING ON SIX LEGS WITH METAL RODS EXTENDING UPWARDS FROM BASE. HEXAGONAL CYLINDER SITS ON TOP OF BASE, SURROUNDING METAL RODS. TWO SIDES OF HEXAGONAL CYLINDER ARE HINGED DOORS, LATCH ON FRONT SECURES DOORS CLOSED. ATTACHED TO METAL RODS IS LIGHT BULB WITH FIXTURE. TOP PIECE CONSISTS OF UPSIDE-DOWN DISH-SHAPED STRUCTURE, WITH WIDE LIP AND HIGHLY DECORATED EDGE, WHICH SLIDES ON TOP OF A VERTICAL PLATE WHICH RISES FROM METAL RODS. DOORKNOB-SHAPED HANDLE SITS ON TOP OF VERTICAL PLATE AND TOP PIECE, AND PEG SECURES ALL PIECES TOGETHER. CHAIN WOULD THEN BE USED TO HANG ENTIRE STRUCTURE FROM CEILING. 12 PCES TTL. UWA-JOKU: U. GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN TABLE, CONSISTS OF 4 PCES. BOTTOM-MOST PCE IS RECTANGULAR FRAME INTO WHICH TABLE STRUCTURE WITH SCROLL LEGS SLOTS INTO, FLAT TABLE SURFACE SLOTS INTO TBALE FRAME, TABLE RUNNER SITS ON TABLE SURFACE, DECORATED WITH ETCHED BRASS PLATES, CUT-OUTS AND DEPICTIONS OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS PAINTED PINK AND GREEN. ONE LEG HAS DETACHED FROM TABLE. LEGS ARE AFFIXED TO TABLE BY SMALL EXTENSION THAT SLOTS INTO HOLES. HEIGHT 34.9, LENGTH 75.7, WIDTH 29.4. JAPANESE NAME IS, “UWA-JOKU,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “UPPER TABLE.” 5 PCES. YORAKU: V. HANGING ORNAMENTS, GOLD-PAINTED WOOD, SET OF TWO, HEIGHT 52.5, WIDTH 20.3. JAPANESE NAME IS, “YORAKU,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “CORNER ORNAMENTS.” SIX STRINGS OF ORNAMENTS HANG FROM A CANOPY-LIKE STRUCTURE THAT IS SUSPENDED FROM THE 2 FRONT CORNERS OF THE GOKUDEN. THE ORNAMENTS CONSIST OF SMALL BEADS AND GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN FILIGREE. 2 PCES. W. HANGING ORNAMENTS, GOLD-PAINTED WOOD, SET OF TWO, HEIGHT 52.0, WIDTH 7.2. JAPANESE NAME IS, “YORAKU,” WHICH TRANSLATES TO, “CORNER ORNAMENTS.” SINGLE STRING OF ORNAMENTS WHICH HANGS FROM THE TWO BACK CORNERS OF THE GOKUDEN. THE ORNAMENTS CONSIST OF SMALL BEADS AND GOLD-PAINTED WOODEN FILIGREE. 2 PCES. WHITE CANDLE: X. PARTIALLY BURNED DOWN, LENGTH 27.7, DIAMETER 2.2.
Subjects
CEREMONIAL ARTIFACT
Historical Association
RELIGION
History
THESE OBJECTS REPRESENT THE BULK OF RELIGIOUS ITEMS OWNED BY THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH. NEARLY ALL OF THESE OBJECTS ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN ACQUIRED FROM JAPAN IN 1962. FOR 60 YEARS, THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH WAS A SPIRITUAL AND SOCIAL GATHERING PLACE FOR THE MANY JAPANESE AND JAPANESE-CANADIANS RESIDING IN VAUXHALL, BOW ISLAND AND TABER. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH, AS WELL AS SEVERAL OTHER BUDDHIST CHURCHES IN THE AREA, IS, HOWEVER, RELATED TO A DARK CHAPTER IN CANADIAN HISTORY, NAMELY THE FORCIBLE RELOCATION OF JAPANESE IMMIGRANTS AND THEIR DECEDENTS FROM THE WEST COAST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. IN “JODO SHINSHU IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA: FROM RURAL RAYMOND TO AMALGAMATION” JOHN HARDING WRITES, “THE HISTORY OF JAPANESE IMMIGRANTS IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA IS INSEPARABLE FROM THE RELOCATION, INTERNMENT AND LABOR FORCED ON JAPANESE AND JAPANESE-CANADIANS IN 1942.” MANY EVACUEES CHOSE, FROM A LIMITED NUMBER OF OPTIONS, TO MOVE TO SOUTHERN ALBERTA, AS THIS ALLOWED FOR FAMILIES TO STAY TOGETHER. AS A RESULT OF THIS RELOCATION, SOUTHERN ALBERTA’S JAPANESE AND JAPANESE-CANADIAN POPULATION INCREASED IN SIZE DRAMATICALLY. PRIOR TO THE WAR, LESS THAN 600 JAPANESE AND JAPANESE-CANADIANS RESIDED IN ALBERTA. APPROXIMATELY 3,000 EVACUEES MOVED TO SOUTHERN ALBERTA FOLLOWING THE EVACUATION, MANY OF WHICH SETTLED ON FARMS IN THE TABER AND RAYMOND AREA. MANY BUDDHIST CHURCHES WERE ESTABLISHED IN RURAL COMMUNITIES IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA FOLLOWING THIS INCREASE IN JAPANESE AND JAPANESE-CANADIAN POPULATIONS. THE TOWNS OF PICTURE BUTTE, ROSEMARY, COALDALE AND TABER ALL SAW THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BUDDHIST CHURCHES IN THE 1940S AND 1950S. THESE CHURCHES ENABLED MEMBERS TO MAINTAIN THEIR SPIRITUAL AND CULTURAL IDENTITY WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT DURING THE INITIAL PREJUDICES AGAINST JAPANESE AND JAPANESE-CANADIANS DURING AND FOLLOWING WWII. THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH CLOSED IN SEPTEMBER OF 2007. THIS CLOSURE, ALONG WITH THE CLOSURE OF SEVERAL OTHER BUDDHIST CHURCHES IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA, IS PART OF AN ATTEMPT BY THE BUDDHIST CHURCHES OF SOUTHERN ALBERTA TO AMALGAMATE CHURCHES AND CREATE A NEW TEMPLE, THE BUDDHIST TEMPLE OF SOUTHERN ALBERTA (BTSA), BASED IN LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA. THIS DECISION WAS BROUGHT ABOUT PRIMARILY BECAUSE MEMBERS WERE AGING AND MEMBERSHIP HAD BEEN DECLINING STEADILY FOR THE PAST SEVERAL DECADES. MANY OF THE SHRINES BELONGING TO THESE CHURCHES WERE DONATED TO MUSEUMS THROUGHOUT ALBERTA. THE GALT MUSEUM AND ARCHIVES IN LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA IS THE RECIPIENT OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH SHRINE. THIS REPORT IS A SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH, AND IS BASED ON PUBLISHED SOURCES AND INTERVIEWS OF PAST CHURCH MINISTERS AND MEMBERS. ESTABLISHMENT AND HISTORY OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH: KOJIRO SAKAMOTO WAS INSTRUMENTAL IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH. SAKAMOTO MOVED TO TABER FROM PITT MEADOWS IN 1942, FOLLOWING THE EVACUATION OF JAPANESE AND JAPANESE-CANADIANS DURING WORLD WAR II. ASAYE SAKAMOTO, KOJIRO SAKAMOTO’S DAUGHTER-IN-LAW, REMEMBERS KOJIRO, ALONG WITH HER HUSBAND MR. SAKAMOTO AND TSURUKICHI MISHIYAMA, TRAVELING THROUGHOUT THE TABER AREA TO MEET WITH VARIOUS FAMILIES TO DISCUSS THE IDEA OF ESTABLISHING A BUDDHIST CHURCH. IN 2008, IRENE SAKAMOTO, KOJIRO’S GRANDDAUGHTER, RECALLED HIS APTITUDE FOR GATHERING DONATIONS: “HE (KOJIRO) WOULD PUT UP SOME MONEY TO SAY, HERE’S HOW MUCH I’M GOING TO DONATE TO THE CHURCH. YOU SHOULD DONATE THIS MUCH, OR WHAT YOU CAN…HE WANTED THAT CHURCH BADLY.” IRENE SAKAMOTO REMEMBERED A LOCAL WOMAN, RUBY KRENSKE, PICKING HER UP AT HER HOME IN ORDER TO TAKE HER TO THE TABER GOSPEL HALL TO ATTEND A CHRISTIAN SERVICE. IN, “FROM TANK 77 TO TABER TODAY,” KRENSKE WROTE, “I FIRST MET WITH THE CHILDREN ON THE STREET WHO WENT NOWHERE TO SUNDAY SCHOOL…WE ARRANGED FOR BRINGING THEM IN TO SUNDAY SCHOOL AT THE GOSPEL HALL AND THEY ALL CAME.” MANY CHILDREN WOULD GO TO THE GOSPEL HALL WITH KRENSKE, SO LONG AS THEIR PARENTS APPROVED. IRENE SAKAMOTO WONDERS IF THIS DID NOT BOTHER HER GRANDFATHER, PERHAPS MOTIVATING HIM TO ESTABLISH THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH. IN 1945, A COMMITTEE WAS ORGANIZED IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH A BUDDHIST CHURCH IN TABER. KOJIRO SAKAMOTO, MISHIYAMA AND OTHERS ARRANGED FOR BUDDHIST MINISTERS REVEREND IKUTA AND REVEREND YUTETSU KAWAMURA, WHO RESIDED RESPECTIVELY IN PICTURE BUTTE AND RAYMOND, TO VISIT TABER AND CONDUCT SERVICES WITHIN PRIVATE HOMES. KOJIRO SAKAMOTO HAD AN EXTRA ROOM BUILT ONTO HIS HOME IN ORDER TO ACCOMMODATE MORE PEOPLE FOR THESE SERVICES. KOJIRO SAKAMOTO WAS ALSO INSTRUMENTAL IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A ‘KODEN,’ A MONETARY GIFT MADE TO A RECENTLY DECEASED PERSON’S FAMILY DURING THE FUNERAL. IRENE SAKAMOTO REMEMBERS HER GRANDFATHER ASKING EVERYONE IN THE CHURCH TO DONATE A DOLLAR OR TWO TO THOSE WHO HAD SUFFERED A RECENT DEATH IN THEIR FAMILY. THE MONEY ENABLED FAMILIES TO PURCHASE A COFFIN FOR THEIR DECEASED LOVED ONES. BY 1947, THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH WAS ESTABLISHED, AND THE SOUTH HUNGARIAN HALL WAS BEING RENTED FOR WEEKLY SERVICES. IN 1949, THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH PURCHASED THE HUNGARIAN HALL FROM DONATIONS RECEIVED BY CHURCH MEMBERS. CHURCH MEMBERSHIP CONSISTED OF MORE THAN 90 FAMILIES AND IT WAS QUICKLY REALIZED THAT THE HALL WOULD NOT ACCOMMODATE ALL OF THE CHURCH MEMBERS. IN THE SUMMER OF 1950, AN ANNEX WAS ADDED TO THE BUILDING FOLLOWING A VERY SUCCESSFUL FUND-RAISING CAMPAIGN. TO HELP COVER THE COSTS OF THE NEW EXTENSION, THE ESTABLISHED FARMER MEMBERS DONATED THE PROFITS FROM TWO ACRES OF SUGAR BEET CROPS TOWARDS THE CHURCH WHICH, WERE THINNED AND CARED FOR BY THE CHURCH MEMBERS. OTHER MEMBERS CONTINUED TO MAKE MONETARY DONATIONS. IN 1951, THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH WAS THE RECIPIENT OF A GOHONZON, A STATUE OF AMIDA BUDDHA, FROM THE NEW YORK BUDDHIST CHURCH. MR. AKISABURO SATO FROM TABER TRAVELED REGULARLY TO THE EAST COAST, AND ACCEPTED THE GOHONZON ON BEHALF OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH FROM THE NYBC. AN INSTALLATION CEREMONY WAS CONDUCTED IN APRIL 1951 FOLLOWING THE DONATION. IN 1952, THE LADY YOSHIKO OHTANI AND LORD KOSHO OHTANI, ALSO KNOWN AS THE ABBOT, VISITED THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH. THIS VISIT WAS PART OF THE LADY OHTANI’S DESIRE TO REVITALIZE THE BUDDHIST WOMAN’S ASSOCIATION BY VISITING SHIN BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN JAPAN AND OVERSEAS. AS A RESULT OF HER EFFORTS, THE WORLD WOMAN’S BUDDHIST CONVENTION, ONE OF WHICH TOOK PLACE IN VANCOUVER AND WAS ATTENDED BY MANY TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH MEMBERS, WAS HELD EVERY FOUR YEARS. THESE CONFERENCES ALLOWED FOR THE VARIOUS SHIN BUDDHIST CHAPTERS TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER AND SHARE DIFFERENT CULTURAL TRADITIONS. IRENE SAKAMOTO RECALLED ATTENDING THIS EVENT IN TABER AND BEING BAPTIZED BY THE ABBOT, ALONG WITH SEVERAL OTHER PEOPLE. THOSE WHO WERE BAPTIZED WERE GIVEN THEIR BUDDHIST NAME, WHICH WAS WRITTEN ON A PLACARD, AND IS TRADITIONALLY PLACE IN THE BUDDHIST TEMPLE DURING THEIR FUNERAL SERVICE. AS EARLY AS 1958, THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH BEGAN TO MAKE INQUIRIES TO JAPANESE SHRINE DEALERS IN ORDER TO PURCHASE A SHRINE. FURTHER INQUIRIES WERE MADE IN JULY, 1961. AFTER RESEARCHING POTENTIAL SHRINE DEALERS IN JAPAN, A SHINE WAS DECIDED UPON IN FEBRUARY OF 1962. THE TOTAL COST WAS ABOUT $3500.00. THE SHRINE ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN APRIL, 1963 AND WAS ASSEMBLED BY MR. KAWADE OF RAYMOND. IN MARCH 1964, AN INSTALLATION CEREMONY WAS HELD. IT WAS ATTENDED BY APPROXIMATELY 400 MEMBERS AND GUESTS, DESPITE INCLEMENT WEATHER, AND ABOUT $3950.00 WAS RAISED VIA RAFFLES AND DONATIONS. IN APRIL 1964, AN INSTITUTIONAL SPLIT DIVIDED THE BUDDHIST CHURCHES IN ALBERTA. THE SPLIT WAS A SENSITIVE ISSUE AND IMPACTED RELATIONS BETWEEN MEMBERS OF VARIOUS BUDDHIST CHURCHES IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA FOR DECADES. THE REASONS FOR THE SPLIT REMAIN UNCLEAR, ALTHOUGH IT APPEARS THAT DIFFERING OPINIONS ABOUT THE DIRECTION OF THE BUDDHIST CHURCHES AND PERSONALITY CONFLICTS WERE THE MAIN CAUSES. THE MAJORITY OF MEMBERS OF THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH, ALONG WITH THE NORTHSIDE LETHBRIDGE, COALDALE, AND THE PICTURE BUTTE BUDDHIST CHURCHES, REMAINED WITH THE BUDDHIST CHURCHES OF CANADA, WHILE THE ROSEMARY, RAYMOND, AND HONPA BUDDHIST CHURCHES EXISTED INDEPENDENTLY OF THE BCC. THE INSTITUTIONAL SPLIT WAS RECONCILED, TO A DEGREE, FOLLOWING THE CREATION OF THE BTSA IN 2007. BITTER FEELINGS, HOWEVER, ARE STILL APPARENT. THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH CELEBRATED 25TH, 30TH, 35TH, 40TH, AND 50TH ANNIVERSARIES IN 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, AND 1997, RESPECTIVELY. AT THESE EVENTS, A SPECIAL SERVICE WAS HELD AND PHOTOGRAPHS WERE TAKEN TO COMMEMORATE THE EVENT. IN 1984, THE ABBOT AND LADY OHTANI VISITED THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH. THE VISITING ABBOT WAS THE SON OF LORD KOSHO OHTANI, THE ABBOT WHO CAME TO S. ALBERTA IN 1952. IN 1988, CHURCH MEMBER JACK NAGAI SPEARHEADED THE MOTION TO GET THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH INCORPORATED. THE GOAL WAS TO BE ABLE TO REGISTER THE CHURCH SO THAT TAX RECEIPTS COULD BE ISSUED TO THOSE WHO GAVE A DONATION. DURING THE SAME YEAR, THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT ISSUED REDRESS COMPENSATION TO THE JAPANESE CANADIANS WHO ENDURED EVACUATION DURING WORLD WAR II. MANY RECIPIENTS OF REDRESS MADE DONATIONS TO THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH, ALLOWING FOR REPAIRS AND CONTINUATION OF CHURCH ACTIVITIES. IN 2008, SEVERAL TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH MEMBERS TOLD GALT MUSEUM STAFF THAT THEY DONATED REDRESS COMPENSATION, AWARDED IN THE LATE 80S, TO THE BTSA FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE NEW TEMPLE. IN 1989, THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH HOSTED THE 11TH ALBERTA BUDDHIST CONFERENCE. THIS ANNUAL EVENT CONSISTED OF A WEEKEND OF ACTIVITIES, INCLUDING AN OPENING SERVICE, GUEST SPEAKERS, A BANQUET, A TOUR OF ROGER’S SUGAR FACTORY, A SPECIAL SESSION ON BUDDHISM FOR YOUTH ATTENDEES AND A CHURCH SERVICE. APPROXIMATELY 230 ATTENDED AND OVER 2500 RAFFLE TICKETS WERE SOLD. TICKETS WERE $20 AND WERE SOLD BY THE HOSTING CHURCH MEMBERS. THE EVENT WAS A HUGE SUCCESS, WITH MORE TICKETS BEING SOLD THAN ANY OTHER PREVIOUS ALBERTA BUDDHIST CONFERENCE. ON SEPTEMBER 9TH, 2007, THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH WAS CLOSED. THE BUILDING WAS SOLD ON OCTOBER 1, 2007. THE INFORMATION ON THE PLACEMENT, FUNCTION, AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE OBJECTS LISTED BELOW WAS GATHERED FROM REVEREND IZUMI, A LOCAL BUDDHIST MINISTER. ALL TRANSLATIONS WERE MADE BY REVEREND IZUMI. BUPPANKI: THESE ARE OFFERING VESSELS, USUALLY FOR COOKED RICE. THEY ARE OFTEN PLACED IN FRONT OF THE STATUE OF AMIDA BUDDHA (GOHONZON) ON THE SHUMIDAN. IN SHIN BUDDHISM, OFFERINGS ARE EXPRESSIONS OF GRATITUDE, AND CAN COME IN A SPIRITUAL OR MATERIAL FORM. SPIRITUAL OFFERINGS INCLUDE THE READING OF PRAYERS AND CHANTING OF SUTRAS, WHEREAS MATERIAL OFFERINGS INCLUDE RICE, CAKES, PASTRIES, CANDIES, FLOWERS, AND INCENSE. THERE ARE SEVERAL OBJECTS THAT ARE USED TO HOLD OFFERINGS: THE DANMORI, BUPPANKI, AND KESOKU. BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO-BAKO: THE BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO-BAKO IS THE BOX USED TO CONTAIN THE THREE PRINCIPLE SUTRAS OF SHIN BUDDHISM. THEY ARE SUTRA OF IMMEASURABLE LIFE (MURYOJU-KYO), WHICH CONSISTS OF TWO VOLUMES, MEDITATION SUTRA (KAMMURYOJU-KYO), AND, AMIDA SUTRA. ADORNING THE BOX LID IS THE JODO SHINSHU CREST AND KIRI. JODO SHINSHU CREST IS ALSO KNOWN AS, “SAGARIFUJI,” WHICH IS A WISTERIA VINE. THE FLOWERS OF THE VINE HANG DOWN AND SIGNIFY HUMILITY. THE SAGARIFUJI WAS ORIGINALLY THE FAMILY CREST OF THE FUJIWARA CLAN, OF WHICH SHINRAN SHONIN, THE FOUNDER OF SHIN BUDDHISM, WAS A MEMBER. THE KIRI REPRESENTS THE PRINCESS TREE AND/OR PAULOWNIA FLOWER AND IS A SYMBOL OF THE OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER OF JAPAN. CANDLE SNUFFER: THIS WOULD SIT IN THE DRAWER OF THE MAE-JOKU, AND WOULD HAVE BEEN USED TO EXTINGUISH CANDLES. ALL FLAMES WOULD HAVE BEEN EXTINGUISHED BY A CANDLE SNUFFER, AS HUMAN BREATH IS CONSIDERED IMPURE. CANDLE SNUFFER WAS KEPT IN THE DRAWER OF THE MAE-JOKU, AND WAS LIKELY PURCHASED LOCALLY. FLAG POLE: THIS WOULD SIT IN THE GEJIN (NON-STAGE AREA) OF THE CHURCH, IN THE RIGHT CORNER AGAINST THE NAIJIN (STAGE), FROM THE AUDIENCE’S PERSPECTIVE. A BUDDHIST FLAG WOULD HAVE BEEN ATTACHED TO THE FLAG POLE. GOBUNSHO-BAKO: THIS BOX WOULD SIT ON THE KYO-JOKU (SUTRA TABLE) IN FRONT OF RENNYO SHONIN’S SCROLL. CONTAINED WITHIN THE BOX WOULD HAVE BEEN A BOOK KNOWN AS, “GOBUNSHO.” THE BOOK CONTAINS A SELECTION OF ABOUT 80 LETTERS WRITTEN BY RENNYO SHONIN, WHO LIVED FROM 1415-1499. HE IS THE 8TH DESCENDANT OF SHINRAN, THE FOUNDER OF THE JODO SHINSHU SECT. RENNYO SHONIN WAS A REFORMER OF THE JODO SHINSHU DENOMINATION, AND IS SEEN AS RESPONSIBLE FOR A RE-EMERGENCE OF SHIN BUDDHISM. THE LETTERS WERE WRITTEN TO HELP CLARIFY THE TRUE MEANING OF THE NAMU AMIDA BUTSU AND SHINRAN SHONIN'S TEACHINGS. FOR SYMBOLISM OF JODO SHINSHU CREST AND KIRI, SEE HISTORY OF BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO-BAKO ABOVE. SEE ARCHIVES. GOKUDEN: IS USED TO HOUSE THE GOHONZON (AMIDA BUDDHA). THE GOKUDEN SITS ON THE SHUMIDAN . THE FOUR PILLARS SURROUNDING THE ALCOVE WHERE THE GOHONZON SITS ARE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, A CENTRAL COMPONENT OF BUDDHIST TEACHINGS. THE ANIMALS DEPICTED IN RELIEF ON THE GOKUDEN ARE SEEN AS PROTECTING AMIDA BUDDHA. THE GOLD COLOUR SEEN THROUGHOUT THE GOKUDEN AND OTHER RELIGIOUS ARTIFACTS IS SYMBOLIC: TRUTH, LIKE GOLD, DOES NOT TARNISH OVER TIME. FOR SYMBOLISM OF JODO SHINSHU CREST, SEE HISTORY OF BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO-BAKO ABOVE. KAHIN: THE KAHIN (FLOWER VASES) SIT ON THE MAE-JOKU OR SHOKO-DAI. THE BUTSUGU WHICH SITS ON THE MAE-JOKU ARE ARRANGED IN EITHER A THREE OR FIVE SET ARRANGEMENT. THE THREE SET ARRANGEMENT IS CALLED A, “SANGUSOKU,” WHICH HAS AN INCENSE BURNER, A VASE, AND A CANDLE-STICK HOLDER ARRANGED LEFT TO RIGHT FROM THE AUDIENCE’S PERSPECTIVE. THE FIVE SET ARRANGEMENT IS CALLED A, “GOGUSOKU,” AND THE BUTSUGU ARRANGEMENT IS A VASE, A CANDLE-STICK HOLDER, AN INCENSE BURNER, A CANDLE HOLDER AND A VASE. THE GOGUSOKU IS TRADITIONALLY RESERVED FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS, ALTHOUGH THE BUDDHIST CHURCHES IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA USED THIS ARRANGEMENT FREQUENTLY, ACCORDING TO REVEREND IZUMI. FLOWERS ARE A COMMON SYMBOL IN SHIN BUDDHISM, SIGNIFYING THE IMPERMANENCE OF LIFE. MANY CHURCHES IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA COULD NOT AFFORD TO PURCHASE FRESH FLOWERS YEAR ROUND, THUS FAKE FLOWERS WERE OFTEN USED. THE DRAGONS WHICH APPEAR ON THE HANDLES OF SOME OF THE KAHIN ARE SYMBOLIC OF GOOD OMENS. KASHA: THE KASHA (INCENSE-BURNER) SITS ON THE UWA-JOKU (UPPER TABLE). THE BUTSUGU THAT SIT ON THE UWA-JOKU ARE ARRANGED IN A FOUR ELEMENT ARRANGEMENT. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, FROM THE AUDIENCE’S PERSPECTIVE, THE ARRANGEMENT IS AS FOLLOWS: KEBYO (FLOWER-VASE), ROSOKU-TATE (CANDLE HOLDER), KASHA, AND KEBYO. SOME PHOTOGRAPHS, HOWEVER, SUGGEST THAT THIS ARRANGEMENT WAS FLEXIBLE. THE THREE LEGS OF THE KASHA AND OTHER BUTSUGU ARE SYMBOLIC OF THE THREE TREASURES: (1) BUDDHA, THE SOURCE OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND TRUTH, (2) DHARMA, THE TEACHINGS AND EXPRESSIONS OF TRUTH, AND (3) SANGHA, A FRIENDLY, HARMONIOUS GATHERING. BUTSUGU WITH THREE LEGS SHOULD BE POSITIONED SUCH THAT ONE OF THE THREE LEGS FACES DIRECTLY OUTWARDS. INCENSE-BURNING WAS A COMMON RITUAL PRACTICED IN BUDDHIST CHURCHES, SIGNIFYING ONES RESPECT AND GRATITUDE TOWARDS AMIDA BUDDHA. KEBYO: THESE FLOWER VASES WOULD SIT ON THE UWA-JOKU (UPPER TABLE), PER PLACEMENT OF KEBYO, SEE SEE HISTORY OF KASHA ABOVE. PER SIGNIFICANCE OF FLOWERS IN SHIN BUDDHISM, SEE HISTORY OF KAHIN ABOVE. KIKU-RINTO: THIS CHRYSANTHEMUM HANGING LANTERN WOULD HANG FROM THE CEILING, GENERALLY ON EITHER SIDE OF THE MAE-JOKU (FRONT TABLE). IN SHIN BUDDHISM, LIGHT SYMBOLIZES AMIDA BUDDHA’S WISDOM AND TRUTH. THE FLOWERS FOUND THROUGHOUT THE KIKU-RINTO ARE SYMBOLIC OF THE TRANSIENCE OF LIFE. SPECIFICALLY, THE CHRYSANTHEMUM FLOWER IS FOUND ON THE CREST OF THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN, AND A SYMBOL OF THE EMPEROR AND THE IMPERIAL HOUSE. TRADITIONALLY, SUCH LANTERNS WERE OIL-BURNING, BUT THESE LANTERNS ARE ELECTRIC. KORO: THESE KORO (INCENSE-BURNERS) WERE TYPICALLY PLACED ON A SHOKO-DAI (INCENSE BURNING STAND). PER SIGNIFICANCE OF THREE LEGGED BUTSUGU AND INCENSE BURNING, SEE HISTORY OF KASHA ABOVE. THE DRAGONS DEPICTED ON THE KORO ARE SYMBOLS OF GOOD OMENS. FOR SYMBOLISM OF JODO SHINSHU CREST, SEE HISTORY OF BUSSETSU MURYJU KYO-BAKO ABOVE. MAE-JOKU: THIS TABLE WOULD BE CENTERED IN FRONT OF THE GOKUDEN (AMIDA BUDDHA’S HOUSE) ON THE NAJIN (STAGE). FOR KINDS OF BUTSUGU AND THEIR PLACEMENT ON MAE-JOKU , SEE HISTORY OF KAHIN ABOVE. THE CARVED WOODEN RELIEFS ON THE TABLE INCLUDE DRAGONS, CRANES (SYMBOLS OF GOOD OMENS AND LONGEVITY, RESPECTIVELY), PEACOCKS, AND LOTUS AND CHRYSANTHEMUM FLOWERS. LOTUS FLOWERS ARE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT SYMBOLS IN BUDDHISM. THE LOTUS PLANT BEGINS ITS LIFE AS A SEED, AT THE MUCKY BOTTOM OF A POND. AS IT GROWS, THE PLANT ASCENDS THROUGH THE MURKY WATER, EVENTUALLY COMING TO THE SURFACE AND BLOSSOMING INTO A BEAUTIFUL FLOWER. THE LOTUS FLOWER IS THUS AN EXAMPLE FOR FOLLOWERS OF THE BUDDHIST FAITH. THE MUCK AND MUDDY POND IS SYMBOLIC OF OUR WORLD, AND THE SINS AND TEMPTATIONS THAT EXIST WITHIN IT, YET FROM THIS, A BEAUTIFUL FLOWER IS BORNE. BY FOLLOWING AMIDA BUDDHA’S TEACHING AND STRIVING FOR PURITY AND ENLIGHTENMENT, ONE IS ABLE TO MOVE BEYOND SIN, AND ASCEND TOWARDS ENLIGHTENMENT. PER SIGNIFICANCE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM FLOWERS, SEE HISTORY OF AND KIKU-RINTO ABOVE. THE ANIMALS AND PLANTS REPRESENTED APPEAR AS THEY ARE DESCRIBED IN THE AMIDA SUTRA, ONE OF THE 3 PRINCIPLE SUTRAS OF SHIN BUDDHISM. RESTING ON TOP OF THE MAE-JOKU WAS THE UCHISHIKI AND MIZUHIKI AND TABLE RUNNER (SEE P20070020012). ROSOKU-TATE: THESE PARTICULAR ROSOKU-TATE WOULD SIT ON A SHOKO-DAI. THE DRAGONS DEPICTED ON THE ROSOKU-TATE ARE SYMBOLIC OF GOOD OMENS. THE FLAME WOULD HAVE BEEN EXTINGUISHED BY A CANDLE SNUFFER, AS HUMAN BREATH IS CONSIDERED IMPURE. PER SIGNIFICANCE OF LIGHT IN SHIN BUDDHISM, SEE HISTORY OF KIKU-RINTO. SHUMIDAN: SAT ON THE CENTER OF THE STAGE (NAIJIN) IN THE TABER BUDDHIST CHURCH. THE GOKUDEN SITS ATOP THE SHIMUDAN, AS DOES THE UWA-JOKU AND OTHER VARIOUS BUTSUGU. DRAGONS DEPICTED ON THE SHIMUDAN ARE SYMBOLIC OF GOOD OMENS. PER SIGNIFICANCE OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS, SEE HISTORY OF KIKU-RINTO. TASSLE: THIS HUNG INSIDE THE GOKUDEN, ABOVE THE HEAD OF THE GOHONZON. TSURI TORO: THESE WOULD HANG FROM THE CEILING, ON EITHER SIDE OF THE GOKUDEN (AMIDA BUDDHA’S HOUSE). THE TSURI TORO WERE ORIGINALLY USED TO LIGHT PATHS AT NIGHT TO AVOID THE ACCIDENTAL KILLING OF INSECTS AND SMALL CREATURES ON THE ROAD. TRADITIONALLY, SUCH LANTERNS WERE OIL-BURNING, BUT THESE LANTERNS WERE ELECTRIC. PER SIGNIFICANCE OF LIGHT IN SHIN BUDDHISM, SEE HISTORY OF KIKU-RINTO. UWA-JOKU: SITS ON THE SHIMUDAN, IN FRONT OF THE GOKUDEN. SITTING ON TOP OF THE UWA-JOKU IS UCHISHIKI 1(TABLE CLOTH). SEE P20070020013 FOR DESCRIPTION AND PLACEMENT OF THIS UCHISHIKI. A FOUR ELEMENT ARRANGEMENT SAT ON THIS TABLE WHICH, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, AUDIENCE’S PERSPECTIVE, WERE: KEBYO, ROSOKU-TATE, KASHA, AND KEBYO. PER SIGNIFICANCE AND FUNCTION OF THESE OBJECTS, SEE RESPECTIVE HISTORIES LISTED ABOVE. YORAKU: THESE WOULD HANG FROM THE FOUR CORNERS OF THE GOKUDEN; THE LARGER YORAKU HANG FROM THE FRONT CORNERS AND THE SMALLER YORAKU HANG FROM THE BACK CORNERS. THEY ARE DERIVED FROM ORNAMENTS WORN AROUND THE NECK OF BODY OF ARISTOCRATIC MEN IN ANCIENT INDIA. SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA, THE FOUNDER OF BUDDHISM, ADVOCATED THAT NOBILITY WAS NOT THE RESULT OF ONE’S BIRTH, BUT RATHER THE RESULT OF ONES DEEDS. THESE YORAKU REPRESENT THE ATTAINMENT OF NOBILITY THROUGH NOBLE DEEDS. WHITE CANDLE: WOULD HAVE BEEN USED WITH ROSOKU-TATE.
Catalogue Number
P20070020001
Acquisition Date
2007-01
Collection
Museum
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