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Other Name
GUN OIL
Date Range From
1935
Date Range To
1950
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
GLASS, CORK, OIL
Catalogue Number
P20190002003
  2 images  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
GUN OIL
Date Range From
1935
Date Range To
1950
Materials
GLASS, CORK, OIL
No. Pieces
1
Height
10.4
Length
3.5
Width
4.6
Description
GLASS BOTTLE CONTAINING AMBER OIL, WITH CRACKED AND TORN CORK IN TOP OPENING. BOTTLE HAS ROUND NECK, DOMED TOP AND SQUARE BODY; BOTTLE HAS BLUE AND WHITE LABEL ON FRONT. FRONT LABEL BLUE BACKGROUND WITH WHITE CROWN ABOVE WHITE SHIELD WITH RED AND BLUE TEXT; LABEL IS TORN ACROSS SHIELD MAKING RED TEXT INDECIPHERABLE, BLUE TEXT BELOW READS “PURE VANILLA”; SHIELD HAS WHITE DOTS AROUND BASE AND WHITE TEXT BELOW “FLAVORING EXTRACTS, CAMPBELL BROS & WILSON LIMITED, WINNIPEG – CANADA, EST. 1882”. BACK OF BOTTLE HAS EMBOSSED IN GLASS “2 FL. OZ”. BASE OF BOTTLE HAS EMBOSSED IN GLASS “1, 4818, FDJ” WITH “D” IN A DIAMOND. CORK IS TORN OFF AT THE TOP OF THE BOTTLE NECK; LABEL IS WORN AND DISCOLORED; OVERALL VERY GOOD CONDITION.
Subjects
CONTAINER
Historical Association
SAFETY SERVICES
History
ON JANUARY 10, 2019, COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN INTERVIEWED JEAN BUCHANAN REGARDING HER DONATION OF A REVOLVER AND FIREARM ACCESSORIES. THE FIREARM WAS USED BY BUCHANAN’S FATHER, EDWARD ETTERSHANK BUCHANAN, DURING HIS CAREER WITH THE ALBERTA PROVINCIAL POLICE AND ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE. BUCHANAN ELABORATED ON THE USE OF THE GUN OIL, NOTING, “[DAD HAD A BAG] BECAUSE, IN HIS YOUNGER DAYS, HE OFTEN HAD TO GO OUT ON HORSEBACK. HE’D BE GONE, HUNTING DOWN A MURDERER, AND HE MIGHT HAVE HAD A GUIDE WITH HIM. HE TOOK SOME OF HIS CLEANING EQUIPMENT FOR THE REVOLVER, AND HIS RIFLE, TOO…HE COULD PACK HIS LUNCH…KNIVES, SURVIVAL, AND HIS DIRTY OLD CLEANING CLOTH THAT HE USED, AND AN OLD BOTTLE OF GUN OIL, SO HE COULD CLEAN THE GUN IN CASE HE HAPPENED TO DROP IT IN SOME MUD. YOU NEVER KNOW [WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN] WHEN YOU’RE OUT…YOU HAVE TO KEEP YOUR GUN VERY CLEAN. HE KEPT EVERYTHING VERY CLEAN…YOU HAVE TO KEEP THE GUN CLEAN IF YOU’RE GOING TO USE IT, BECAUSE YOU COULD DAMAGE IT IF YOU HAVE ANY DIRT IN THE BARREL.” ON HER FATHER’S REVOLVER, BUCHANAN RECALLED, “[MY DAD] USED [THE SMITH AND WESSON REVOLVER]…STARTING IN 1932, WITH THE RCMP, MAY BE WHEN HE GOT THAT GUN. HE HAD IT REGISTERED IN 1940, AND GETTING ANOTHER 5 YEARS REGISTRATION IT MUST HAVE BEEN 1935. [THE GUN] WAS HIS SIDEARM…HIS SERVICE WEAPON…HE HAD THAT ALL THE TIME…IT WOULD GO RIGHT ON HIS BELT THERE.” “[DAD KEPT THE GUN] IN [MY PARENTS’] BEDROOM. RIGHT ON THE BEDROOM CLOSET DOOR, RIGHT OPEN. I NEVER TOUCHED IT, BECAUSE HE HAD GIVEN ME MY TRAINING AND LET ME USE IT WHEN I WAS YOUNG. I HAD RESPECT FOR IT, AND I HAD NO SPECIAL CURIOSITY, WHICH IS A GOOD THING. [DAD KNEW I WAS] AN ADVENTUROUS PERSON, BUT I NEVER EVER TOUCHED IT, OUT OF COMPLETE RESPECT FOR DAD AND WHAT HE HAD THERE.” “ALL I CAN REMEMBER [IS HE HAD TWO HANDGUNS OR SIDEARMS]…HE DIDN’T GO OUT PRACTICING VERY MUCH; HE DIDN’T HAVE TO. HE COULD PASS HIS MARKSMANSHIP, AND THEN, EVERY TIME THERE WERE THINGS AT REGINA DEPOT TRAINING COURSES (UPGRADING, REFRESHER COURSES) THEY DID THEIR MARKSMANSHIP THERE, TOO. THEY WERE ALWAYS TESTED ON THEIR MARKSMANSHIP, AT REGINA DEPOT.” “I THINK [THE REVOLVER HAD] QUITE A BIT [OF MEANING TO MY DAD], BECAUSE HE HAD IT IN HIS HOUSE. IT WAS REALLY STRANGE BECAUSE I ASKED HIM WHERE IT WAS, WHEN HE SHOWED ME THE PAPERS, AND HE HAD IT IN A SHOE BOX IN HIS BEDROOM CLOSET. YOU DIDN’T HAVE TO HAVE GREAT [HIDING] PLACES FOR IT IN THOSE DAYS, BUT THAT’S WHERE HE KEPT IT. HE MADE SURE IT WAS THERE, AND HE KNEW WHERE IT WAS.” “[I HAVE NO] KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HIM HAVING TO FIRE THIS WEAPON…AT ANYONE. IF HE WOULD HAVE, HE WOULD HAVE FIRED TO MISS SOMEONE, JUST AS A WARNING SHOT. HE DEFINITELY WENT FOR WARNING SHOTS, BUT HE NEVER SHOT ANYBODY WITH IT." “[HE WOULD HAVE STOPPED CARRYING THE GUN] AT THE VERY END OF 1950, WHEN HE RETIRED FROM THE R.C.M.P.” “[I’VE HAD THE REVOLVER] SINCE 1998—THE PASSING OF MY FATHER, BECAUSE I WAS THE SOLE EXECUTRIX. IT WAS AUTOMATICALLY MY RESPONSIBILITY TO TAKE ALL OF HIS FIREARMS, IN MY POSSESSION.” “I WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR [THE CARE OF] IT, AND IT WAS A REAL KEEPSAKE. [THE GUN WAS] WAS VERY PERSONAL, BECAUSE I’M SURE [MY DAD] OWNED THAT EVEN BY BACK IN 1935, [WHEN] HE WAS IN WESTLOCK, IN CHARGE OF THE DETACHMENT THERE FOR 10 YEARS. IT WAS OF SENTIMENTAL VALUE BECAUSE HE TOOK ME OUT (I’M PRETTY SURE I WAS 8 YEARS OLD, WHEN HE HAD ME IN THE BACKYARD)—WE HAD FARMLAND AND FOREST—AND HE HAD A TARGET PRACTICE OUT THERE. HE HAD ME USE THAT FIREARM. HE SHOWED ME HOW TO USE IT, HOW TO AIM, AND HOW TO HANDLE IT SAFELY. I ALWAYS RESPECTED THAT, AND THAT WAS GOOD. THAT’S THE ORIGINAL HOLSTER FOR THAT GUN, WHICH YOU CAN SEE IS LOOPED, TO PUT ON HIS BELT. HE ALSO CARRIED A .32 COLT SEMI-AUTOMATIC.” “I’VE ALWAYS APPRECIATED REVOLVERS, AND RIFLES. IT’S NEVER BEEN ANYTHING THAT I THOUGHT ANY DANGER OF. YOU LEARN THE SAFETY, AND YOU TAKE YOUR COURSE. I HAVE MY COURSE DONE, AND I PASSED IT WITH FLYING COLORS. I HAD MY PERMIT TO HAVE IT. I HAVE TAKEN IT OUT, ON MY OWN ACREAGE, AND FIRED IT A BIT, BUT IT ISN’T SOMETHING I WANT TO DO. IT’S A SENTIMENTAL THING THAT I CAN NOW FEEL I’D LIKE TO HAVE IT IN YOUR MUSEUM. I KNOW IT’S NOW IN A SAFE PLACE, SO I DON’T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT IT EVER FALLING INTO THE WRONG HANDS. AND, IF I WANT TO COME AND VISIT IT, I CAN COME AND SEE IT.” ON JUNE 8, 2018, MACLEAN INTERVIEWED BUCHANAN REGARDING HER FATHER’S CAREER WITH THE ALBERTA PROVINCIAL POLICE AND ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE. BUCHANAN ELABORATED ON HER FATHER’S HISTORY, “[MY DAD WAS EDWARD BUCHANAN, WHO RETIRED AT THE RANK OF] SENIOR STAFF SERGEANT…HE RETIRED IN 1950 FROM THE [R.C.M.P].” “HE JOINED THE A.P.P. WHEN HE WAS TWENTY AND HE WAS STATIONED OUT NEAR ST. PAUL. IN ’21, HE MET MY MOTHER IN EDMONTON…BUT HE STAYED AT ST. PAUL AND THEN AFTER, HE GOT POSTED TO GRANDE PRAIRIE. HE WAS GOING TO GO TO GRANDE PRAIRIE BUT THEN IN ’22, THEY GOT MARRIED. A.P.P. HAD NO RESTRICTIONS ON THEIR MEMBERS GETTING MARRIED, LIKE THE R.C.M.P. HE DIDN’T HAVE TO WAIT TO GET MARRIED…THAT’S WHEN THEY WENT OUT TO BRAINARD.” “EVEN IN THE A.P.P., TO START WITH, HE HAD SOME SERVICE DOWN HERE AT THE LETHBRIDGE PRISON…BRINGING PRISONERS DOWN AND THEN MAYBE, AT THE VERY FIRST WINTER AS A ROOKIE, HE WAS ON JOB TO BE ON GUARD AT THE STATION. IT WASN’T LONG AND HE WAS SENT OUT TO ST. PAUL AND INTO MORE OF THE REAL POLICING.” “WHEN HE WAS IN THE A.P.P. [IN 1932] HE WAS THE TOP CLASS OF [THE] A.P.P. THAT AUTOMATICALLY WERE ACCEPTED INTO THE R.C.M.P. HE WAS PUT IN CHARGE, WHEN HE WAS IN THE A.P.P.—FIRST HE STARTED OUT IN CHARGE OF BRAINARD—HORSE LAKE—A LITTLE PLACE NEAR THE HORSE LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION. THEY CLOSED THAT DOWN AND TRANSFERRED HIM TO WEMBLEY, A LITTLE VILLAGE, AND HE WAS THE ONLY ONE IN CHARGE, THE ONLY OFFICER IN CHARGE OF WEMBLEY. THAT’S WHEN THAT 1932 [CHANGE] CAME ALONG AND HE JUST CHANGED THE SIGN UP THERE FROM A.P.P. TO R.C.M.P. AND WENT FROM THERE.” “IN ’32, IT WAS R.C.M.P. AND THAT STAYED R.C.M.P. UNTIL ’34. THEN HE WAS TRANSFERRED TO TAKE CHARGE OF THE WESTLOCK DETACHMENT WHICH WAS A BIG AREA. [THERE] WAS NO DETACHMENT IN BARRHEAD. HE HAD A HUGE AREA THERE TO COVER.” “[A.P.P. MEMBERS] WERE NOT AUTOMATICALLY TAKEN INTO THE R.C.M.P. THEY HAD THREE CATEGORIES THERE, OF THE A.P.P. MEMBERS…[THERE WERE] ONES THAT WERE NOT ACCEPTABLE, THAT THEY HADN’T DONE A VERY GOOD JOB IN THE A.P.P.; THEY SHOWED UP, GOOFIN’ AROUND, DOING THINGS THEY SHOULDN’T BE DOING. THEY WERE NOT ACCEPTABLE. THEN THERE [WERE THE ONES THAT] COULD BE GIVEN A LITTLE TRIAL RUN. THEY COULD APPLY. THEN THERE [WERE] ONES THAT COULD GET IN FOR A FULL YEAR AND THEN RE-APPLY. THEY’D BE ACCEPTED FOR A YEAR. THEN THERE’S THE TOP GRADE AND [THEY] WERE AUTOMATICALLY ACCEPTABLE. DAD WAS RIGHT UP THERE IN THAT TOP GRADE.” “A.P.P. MEMBERS WERE TRAINED BY THE NORTHWEST MOUNTED POLICE, NOT SOME GOOFBALLS THAT DIDN’T KNOW WHAT THEY WERE DOING. THESE WERE TRAINED BY THE BEST-TRAINED POLICE OFFICERS.” “ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER HANCOCK KNEW DAD REALLY WELL, HE’D EVEN BEEN IN THE A.P.P. HE CALLED DAD INTO THE OFFICE AND HE SAID, “BUCK, [DAD WAS EDWARD ETTERSHANK BUCHANAN BUT THEY CALLED HIM ‘BUCK’, A LOT] I WAS GOING TO SEND YOU DOWN TO TAKE CHARGE OF THE RED DEER DETACHMENT BUT I’VE HAD SO MUCH PROBLEM GETTING SOMEBODY TO GO DOWN TO TAKE THE LETHBRIDGE DETACHMENT…YOU’RE THE ONLY ONE, I THINK, THAT CAN HANDLE THE SITUATION WE’VE GOT DOWN THERE. THERE’S A LOT OF PROBLEMS AND I’M SURE YOU’RE THE ONLY ONE THAT CAN HANDLE IT. WILL YOU GO?” “[WE CAME DOWN HERE IN] ’44…I NEVER HAD ANY PROBLEM [WITH THE MOVE]. I WAS ALWAYS ADVENTUROUS. I HAD LOTS OF FRIENDS BUT I WAS ALWAYS HAPPY TO GO.” “WE RENTED A HOUSE ON 538 – 7TH STREET. IT’S ALL TORN DOWN NOW. DAD HAD TO COME DOWN A MONTH OR SO AHEAD OF US AND THEN HE COULDN’T FIND A HOUSE READY, SO WE CAME DOWN AND STAYED IN A HOTEL FOR ABOUT TWO MONTHS. I HAD TO START GRADE TEN; I WAS ONLY FOURTEEN, HERE. THAT WAS, TO ME, THE ONLY SAD PART OF MY LIFE, LEAVING THE WESTLOCK SCHOOL AND STARTING LCI. THE PERSONALIZATION WAS GONE WITH THE TEACHERS.” “[DAD] HAD TO OVERSEE THE POW CAMPS…HE TALKED ABOUT THE POW’S IN THIS RESPECT, THAT THERE WAS A LOT OF VERY GOOD GERMANS THAT WERE IN THERE. [THEY] WOULDN’T HAVE CHOSEN TO EVEN BE IN THE GERMAN ARMY…THEY WERE CONSCRIPTED OVER IN GERMANY, THEY DIDN’T HAVE ANY CHOICE, AND THEY WERE VERY DECENT, GOOD GUYS. HE RESPECTED THEM FOR THAT AND HELPED THEM, [GAVE] THEM ADVICE, “YOU KNOW, YOU GOTTA GO BACK TO GERMANY AND THEN APPLY TO COME BACK.” THERE WAS A TRUST THERE TO LET SOME OF THEM OUT TO WORK…‘CAUSE THERE [WAS] A LABOUR SHORTAGE FOR THE FARMERS AND THEY NEEDED THAT HELP. SOME OF THOSE FARMERS WERE VERY PLEASED TO GET SOME OF THESE GERMANS, AND SOME OF THE FARMERS’ DAUGHTERS WERE VERY PLEASED TO GET THAT, TOO. THEN THERE’S SOME LATER MARRIAGES AFTER THAT. IT WOULD BE A SHAME TO CONDEMN ALL THOSE POW’S BECAUSE A LOT OF THEM WERE VERY DECENT, GOOD, MORAL FELLOWS THAT DIDN’T WANT TO BE INVOLVED WITH ANY KILLING.” “HE WAS A PLAIN STAFF SERGEANT, NCO, SECOND IN CHARGE OF THE SUBDIVISION.” “[THEN HE] WENT BACK TO EDMONTON [TO RETIRE IN 1950], HIS HOME CITY WHERE HIS PARENTS WERE AND A LOT OF FRIENDS. HE JOINED THE R.C.M. P. VETS BUT WITH HIS RECORD, THE ATTORNEY GENERAL’S DEPARTMENT WERE NOT GOING TO LET HIM LOOSE. THEY MADE IT A FIRST APPOINTMENT OF AN INSPECTOR OF JAILS FOR THE PRISONS OF ALBERTA WHICH, AT THAT TIME, THERE WERE ONLY TWO: LETHBRIDGE AND FORT SASKATCHEWAN. [THE] ONLY PLACE IN FORT SASKATCHEWAN WAS FOR WOMEN, SO [WOMEN] HAD TO GO ALL THE WAY TO FORT SASKATCHEWAN, EVEN IF [THEY] WAS FROM LETHBRIDGE. THAT WASN’T A VERY GOOD DEAL, SO DAD COULD SEE A REAL NEED [FOR WORK]. IT WAS A REAL MESS WHEN HE LOOKED AT THE PRISONS.” “HE REALIZED, BEING AN R.C.M.P., THAT MANY OF THE YOUNG CITY POLICE, TOWN SHERIFFS, SOME OF THESE MAGISTRATES, THEY MESSED THINGS UP. HE STARTED A TRAINING SCHOOL FOR THESE MUNICIPAL POLICE AND THAT JUST WENT TERRIFICALLY. THEY HAD [THE SCHOOLS] IN CALGARY AND IN EDMONTON TWICE A YEAR. THEY HAD A BIG GROUP FROM MEDICINE HAT COME UP AND [TAKE] THE SCHOOLING, LETHBRIDGE CAME UP, AND SOME OF THE PRISON GUARDS TOOK [THE TRAINING], TOO.” “[HE] WORKED ON THAT FOR FIFTEEN/SIXTEEN YEARS. AFTER TWELVE YEARS, HE WAS SO BUSY THAT THEY MADE HIM SUPERINTENDENT OF PRISONS BECAUSE…THE FIRST THING HE HAD TO DO WAS TO DEVELOP THE PRISONS FOR ALBERTA. TWO WAS NOT SUFFICIENT.” “[DAD’S] PERSONALITY WAS ALWAYS QUIET, FIRM, NO-NONSENSE, HUMOROUS, BUT HE WAS NEVER ARROGANT. I NEVER HEARD HIM SWEAR OR GET MAD AT ANYBODY, NOT EVEN PRISONERS. HE HANDLED THEM VERY QUIETLY, AND VERY FIRMLY. THE STAFF…ALL LOVED HIM. I [HAVE] LETTERS AND THEY CAME ALL THE WAY UP TO THEIR ANNIVERSARIES LATER IN EDMONTON…“YOU’RE THE BEST BOSS WE EVER HAD.” ALL HE HAD WAS A VISION OF WHAT NEEDED TO BE DONE…HE COULD GO AND EXPLAIN THE NEED FOR THE JAILS, WHAT IT WOULD COST AND WHAT IT NEEDED TO FIX THE PROBLEM. HE NEVER HAD PROBLEM GETTING EXACTLY WHAT HE NEEDED FROM THEM.” ON THE DONATION OF THE REVOLVER AND AMMUNITION, BUCHANAN NOTED, “MY DAD KNEW I WOULD LOOK AFTER [HIS BELONGINGS] AND WANTED TO GET IT TO A MUSEUM. [DAD KNEW] THAT I WASN’T ONE TO PUT IT IN MY BASEMENT TO HAVE GOODNESS-KNOWS-WHAT-HAPPEN TO IT. HE HAD LEFT ALL OF THAT IN CHARGE OF ME. I WAS THE SOLE EXECUTOR OF THE ESTATE.” “I AM NOW AT THE YOUNG AGE OF 88; I’M NOT WORRIED ABOUT LIVING ANOTHER 10 YEARS. I DIDN’T WANT THE CHANCE OF ANYBODY STEALING IT, OR GETTING THEIR HANDS ON IT, SO I WANTED TO MAKE SURE YOU GOT IT. AND, I DON’T NEED IT, SO WHY KEEP IT? IF I GET LONESOME, AND WANT TO SEE IT, I’LL COME TO THE MUSEUM AND LOOK AT IT.” “I’LL FEEL HAPPY, TO KNOW IT’S GOT A GOOD HOME. I DON’T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT IT.” FOR MORE INFORMATION INCLUDING THE FULL TRANSCRIPTIONS FROM INTERVIEWS AND LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARTICLES, PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE P20190002001-GA.
Catalogue Number
P20190002003
Acquisition Date
2019-01
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
SANDAL
Date Range From
2010
Date Range To
2017
Material Type
Artifact
Catalogue Number
P20170007006
  2 images  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
SANDAL
Date Range From
2010
Date Range To
2017
No. Pieces
2
Length
26.3
Width
9.3
Description
PAIR OF WHITE SANDALS, LADIES’ SIZE 8.5. SANDALS HAVE ANKLE STRAP WITH SILVER BUCKLE AND TOE STRAP WITH A CENTER STRAP CONNECTING TOE STRAP TO ANKLE; INSIDE OF SANDALS IS SILVER; BOTTOM OF SANDALS IS BROWN. LABELS INSIDE SANDALS READ “GEORGE” ON BOTTOM, “8 ½, 29 PADDY, MADE IN CAMBODIA, FABRIQUE EN CAMBODGE, 030829470 36131215 S14” INSIDE ANKLES. INSIDE LININGS HAVE RED/BROWN GRIME BUILDUP AROUND EDGES; ANKLES OF SANDALS ARE WORN AND DISCOLOURED; OVERALL VERY GOOD CONDITION.
Subjects
CLOTHING-FOOTWEAR
Historical Association
ASSOCIATIONS
PERSONAL CARE
History
ON FEBRUARY 22, 2017, COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN INTERVIEWED WILMA WOOD, DAUGHTER OF DOROTHY TAYLOR, ABOUT HER DONATION OF TAYLOR’S ORDER OF ROYAL PURPLE REGALIA. THE REGALIA REPRESENTED TAYLOR’S 50-YEAR INVOLVEMENT WITH THE ORDER OF ROYAL PURPLE FROM BRANDON, MANITOBA TO LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA. ON THE SANDALS, WOOD ELABORATED, “THESE ARE RELATIVELY NEW SHOES [ABOUT FIVE OR SIX YEARS OLD] THAT WE GOT WHEN SHE WENT TO PARK MEADOWS BECAUSE SHE COULDN’T HAVE HEELS ANY MORE, OR ANY HEIGHT. SHE AND I WENT OUT AND WE FOUND THESE SHOES THAT SHE COULD WEAR TO THE MEETINGS.” WOOD DISCUSSED HER MOTHER’S TIME IN THE ORDER OF ROYAL PURPLE, STATING, “SHE CONSIDERS [THESE OBJECTS IN ACTIVE USE]. SHE IS VERY MUCH A PERSON WHO VALUES THAT SOCIETY. IT HELPED HER A NUMBER OF TIMES. AS YOU GROW OLDER, ALL OF A SUDDEN YOU DISCOVER THAT YOUR BRAIN ISN’T AS ACTIVE AS IT SHOULD BE AND THE MEMORY IS GOING. SHE WOULD PUT HERSELF INTO POSITIONS WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION INCLUDING BEING PRESIDENT, THREE OR FOUR TIMES. SHE HAD TO BE AN ORGANIZER, SHE HAD TO GET HER BRAIN AND KEEP HER BRAIN FUNCTIONING, WHICH I THOUGHT WAS VERY ADMIRABLE FOR A WOMAN HER AGE BECAUSE…SHE WAS IN HER EIGHTIES. SHE RECEIVED HER 50 YEAR PIN, I THINK IT WAS TWO YEARS AGO OR THREE.” “SHE JOINED [THE ORDER OF ROYAL PURPLE] IN BRANDON, MANITOBA WHERE [MY PARENTS] WERE LIVING AT THE TIME, AND MY DAD RETIRED THERE. THEY MOVED HERE TO LETHBRIDGE BECAUSE MY BROTHER LIVED HERE, AND MY UNCLE ART GOOD…HE LIVED HERE AND THEY WANTED TO BE CLOSER TO FAMILY. THEY MOVED TO LETHBRIDGE AND MY DAD DIED SHORTLY AFTER THAT.” “[SHE JOINED] BECAUSE OF HER FRIENDS. SHE HAD A FRIENDSHIP GROUP AND THEY BELONGED. THEY RECRUITED HER.” “WHEN SHE WAS VERY ACTIVE, SHE WAS A MAJOR RECRUITER. SHE WENT OUT AND FOUND YOUNG WOMEN BUT THEY FELL BY THE WAYSIDE BECAUSE OF LIFE. SHE WAS CERTAINLY VERY ACTIVE IN THEIR PROJECTS, ONE OF WHICH WAS FINDING FINANCES TO EDUCATE YOUNG PEOPLE. WHATEVER THEY WERE [DOING], SHE WAS INTO IT FULL TILT BECAUSE THAT’S THE KIND OF PERSON SHE IS…WHATEVER SHE DOES IS FULL BLAST, FULL BORE. SHE NEVER TOLD ME ANY DETAILS ABOUT THE SOCIETY BECAUSE IT’S ONE OF THOSE SECRET SISTERHOODS. SHE WAS ALWAYS VERY PROUD TO BE A MEMBER OF IT.” “THIS [CHAPTER] DID A LOT OF EDUCATIONAL SUPPORT…SHE TRAVELED WITH THEM BECAUSE IT WAS A CANADIAN ORGANIZATION, SO THEY HAD THEIR ANNUAL GENERAL MEETINGS ALL OVER CANADA. SHE CAME OUT TO VANCOUVER TO A MEETING AND I WENT OVER TO VANCOUVER TO MEET HER AND SAY “HOWDY”. SHE WENT OUT TO THE PREMIER’S, AT THAT TIME WAS VANDER ZALM, AND HE HAD THE BIG GARDENS OUT NEAR STEVESTON. SHE WENT OUT THERE AND SHE MET HIM.” “A YEAR AGO ABOUT THIS TIME, THAT’S WHEN [THE ORDER WAS] FOLDING. THE ALBERTA CLUBS WERE ALL IMPLODING, AND I THINK THERE’S ONLY ONE LEFT IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA. IT WAS THE ISSUE THAT THEY WERE ALL OLD PEOPLE AND YOUNG PEOPLE DID NOT WANT TO JOIN THESE KINDS OF ORGANIZATIONS ANY LONGER…[THIS HAPPENED BECAUSE] I THINK WE HAVE MORE LEGAL SUPPORT. THE GOVERNMENT HAS SET UP HEALTH CARE, COMMUNITIES HAVE SET UP ASSISTANCE FOR WOMEN WHO ARE ABUSED, THERE’S DRUG ASSISTANCE. THERE IS MUCH MORE ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE. IN THE EARLY DAYS ON THE PRAIRIES, IF YOU DIDN’T KNOW YOUR NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR, WHO MIGHT BE TWENTY MILES AWAY, YOU WERE IN DEEP DOO-DOO IF YOU HAD A BIG PROBLEM. THAT’S WHAT THESE SOCIETIES CAME OUT OF WAS THAT NEED. THE NEED PRETTY WELL HAS BEEN TAKEN CARE OF, I THINK. THERE ARE STILL CLUBS BUT THEY’RE DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLUBS NOW.” WHEN ASKED ABOUT HER MOTIVATION FOR DONATING HER MOTHER’S REGALIA TO THE MUSEUM, WOOD NOTED, “MY MOTHER HAS TURNED 99 YEARS OLD IN JANUARY. SHE HAS DEMENTIA AND SO WE’VE HAD TO MOVE HER FROM HER SENIOR’S LODGE ROOM INTO A MORE SECURE ROOM. CONSEQUENTLY THE LAST OF THE THINGS THAT SHE TREASURED OR VALUED MUST BE DISPERSED. MY BROTHER AND I DECIDED THAT, SINCE THE ELKS AND THE ROYAL PURPLE MEANT SO MUCH TO HER, THAT [THESE WERE] THE [OBJECTS] WE WOULD LIKE TO DONATE TO THE MUSEUM. IT DEPICTS A PERIOD OF TIME WHEN THE WOMEN USED THESE ASSOCIATIONS AS A SUPPORT GROUP FOR THEMSELVES. IT WAS ANOTHER ONE OF THESE SECRET SOCIETIES, WHEN IN FACT THEY WERE SISTERHOODS. THEY WERE MEANT MAINLY FOR THEM TO HAVE PEOPLE TO SUPPORT EACH OTHER. SINCE THIS ORGANIZATION HAS BASICALLY COLLAPSED, I THOUGHT IT WAS SOMETHING THAT THE MUSEUM SHOULD HAVE BECAUSE IT DOES SHOW THAT PERIOD OF TIME IN THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF CANADA.” FOR MORE INFORMATION INCLUDING FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTIONS, PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE P20170007001-GA.
Catalogue Number
P20170007006
Acquisition Date
2017-02
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Date Range From
1950
Date Range To
1951
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
LEATHER, COTTON LACES
Catalogue Number
P20160021000
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Date Range From
1950
Date Range To
1951
Materials
LEATHER, COTTON LACES
No. Pieces
2
Height
19
Length
26.5
Description
BLACK, LEATHER PAIR OF COWBOY BOOTS. ANKLE-LENGTH WITH A HEIGHT OF 19 CM FROM BOTTOM OF HEEL TO TOP OF BOOT. THE BOOTS ARE 26.5 CM LONG FROM THE TIP OF THE TOE TO THE BACK OF THE HEEL. THE HEEL HEIGHT IS 3 CM MEASURED FROM THE INSIDE CENTER OF THE HEEL. THE BOOTS ARE LACED UP WITH BLACK, FLAT LACES. THERE ARE 10 EYELETS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE SHOE FOR THE LACES. THERE IS DECORATIVE STITCHING IN BLACK THREAD ON THE BOOT WITH A DESIGN ON TOE. IN THE INSIDE RIM OF THE SHOES (AT THE ANKLES) THERE IS A BAND THAT SAYS “JUSTIN’S SINCE 1879 FT. WORTH, TEXAS.” THIS LOGO IS REPEATED AROUND THE RIM 3 TIMES ON BOTH SHOES. THE INSIDE SOLES AND BOTTOM SOLES OF THE SHOES ARE UNMARKED. GOOD CONDITION. THERE IS SLIGHT SCUFFING ON THE LEATHER OF THE SHOE, SPECIFICALLY ON THE TOES AND HEELS OF BOTH SHOES. THE BOTTOM AND INSIDE SOLES ARE WORN FROM USE. THERE IS A CRACK ON THE HEEL OF THE INSIDE SOLE INSERT OF THE LEFT SHOE. THE LEFT SHOE IS SLIGHTLY MISSHAPED (BENT TOWARDS THE INSIDE OF THE SHOE).
Subjects
CLOTHING-FOOTWEAR
Historical Association
PERSONAL CARE
History
ON 4 AUGUST 2016, COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN CONDUCTED AN INTERVIEW WITH LAWRENCE BAILIE WITH REGARDS TO THIS PAIR OF COWBOY BOOTS HE DONATED. THE BOOTS HAD PREVIOUSLY BELONGED TO HIS FATHER, RICHARD BAILIE. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION HAS BEEN EXTRACTED FROM THE INTERVIEW: “THE BOOTS BELONGED TO MY DAD [RICHARD BAILIE], AND MY DAD BOUGHT THEM IN EITHER 1950 OR ’51, IN SHERIDAN, WYOMING. WE WERE DOWN THERE ON A FAMILY HOLIDAY AND WENT TO THE BLACK HILLS, TO WILD BILL HICKOK’S SHOW... I WAS PROBABLY ABOUT… I THINK 13-14… IT WAS A SHORT ONE. MY DAD HAD ACTUALLY BOUGHT A NEW PLYMOUTH CAR, AND SO WE WENT ON A HOLIDAY… WE DIDN’T [GO ON HOLIDAYS] VERY MUCH, BECAUSE WE ALWAYS HAD WORK ON THE FARM, AND IT WAS HARD TO GET AWAY...” IT WAS BECAUSE OF THE RARE OCCASION OF THIS HOLIDAY THAT BAILIE WAS ABLE TO RECALL THE PURCHASE OF THE BOOTS: “I PROBABLY WOULD HAVE REMEMBERED THAT ANYWAYS BECAUSE WE DIDN’T HAVE – THAT WAS ONE OF THE ONLY HOLIDAYS [THAT WE WENT FAR AWAY] – OTHER TIMES WE WOULD MAYBE GO TO WATERTON FOR TWO DAYS, AND THAT WAS THE EXTENT [OF OUR TRAVELS]. THAT’S PROBABLY WHY I REMEMBER IT, BECAUSE IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST BIG HOLIDAYS THAT WE WENT TOGETHER. AND IT WAS PROBABLY THE LAST ONE TOO – PROBABLY ONE OF THE ONLY ONES. I GOT OLDER AND WE DIDN’T DO THINGS. WE WERE TOO BUSY. WE WORKED. I GUESS MY DAD ALWAYS WANTED TO GO DOWN TO SEE THE BLACK HILLS, AND WE WENT TO YELLOWSTONE PARK, WE CAME BACK THROUGH SHERIDAN, AND WE STOPPED AND WERE SHOPPING. I ALWAYS WANTED COWBOY BOOTS, BECAUSE, UP UNTIL THAT POINT, I DIDN’T HAVE ANY. I THOUGHT I WAS A COWBOY - WELL, I WAS A HALF-WAY. EVERYBODY WANTED TO BE A COWBOY, BUT ANYWAYS I BOUGHT COWBOY BOOTS, AND MY DAD BOUGHT COWBOY BOOTS. THESE WERE HIS GOOD BOOTS – HIS DRESS BOOTS… MY DAD WORE THESE, THEY WERE HIS DANCING BOOTS, AND GOING OUT SPECIAL, YOU KNOW, TO CHURCH OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT. [THESE WERE] HIS SUNDAY BOOTS, SUNDAY SHOES, YEAH…” AS BAILIE RECALLS, HIS FATHER GREW UP ON A RANCH. HE EXPLAINS HIS GRANDFATHER ROBERT BAILIE’S HISTORY HOMESTEADING IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA: “MY GRANDFATHER, WHEN HE HOMESTEADED IN ’09, HE CAME TO WARNER. HE ACTUALLY CAME TO LETHBRIDGE FIRST. HE WENT OUT WITH SOME PEOPLE SELLING LAND, AND HE BOUGHT THIS LAND OUT THERE. HE HAD A HOMESTEAD OUT THERE, BUT HE BOUGHT SOME LAND AND IT WOULD BE, OH MY GOODNESS, APPROXIMATELY 10-12 MILES STRAIGHT EAST OF WARNER. HE HAD IT RIGHT UP AGAINST THE LAKE… MY DAD WAS CONCEIVED ON THE RANCH AND BEING IT WAS 1912, MY GRANDMA (LAURA BAILIE) [WHILE PREGNANT] WENT BACK TO MADISON, WISCONSIN, AND MY DAD WAS BORN THERE. BECAUSE THEY HAD A FAMILY DOCTOR THERE. THEY’D ONLY BEEN HERE FOR A COUPLE OF YEARS, AND THERE WAS NO DOCTORS IN THIS AREA, SO MY GRANDMA WENT BACK BEFORE MY DAD WAS BORN THERE, AND THEN AFTER HE WAS A COUPLE OF WEEKS OLD, OR SO, SHE BROUGHT HIM BACK TO ALBERTA… HIS DAD [ROBERT BAILIE], AT ONE TIME, HAD A HUGE HERD OF CATTLE AND HORSES OUT IN THE KING’S LAKE AREA [ALSO CALLED CROW INDIAN LAKE ON THE MAP], WHERE THEY HOMESTEADED. [IN] THE WINTER OF, I’LL SAY ’29, MY GRANDFATHER WAS PROBABLY A MILLIONAIRE. HE HAD, I CAN’T GIVE YOU NUMBERS, A HEAD OF CATTLE AND HORSES, BUT THEY COULDN’T FEED THEM. MY DAD TELLS STORIES ABOUT RIDING OUT CLOSE TO ’30, AND THERE’S JUST CATTLE AND HORSES ALL OVER, LAYING THERE, WITH THEIR FEET UP IN THE AIR, AND FROZE OVER. THEY STARVED TO DEATH OVER THE WINTER. MY GRANDFATHER LOST PRETTY NEAR EVERYTHING BECAUSE THERE WAS JUST NO FEED. THEY TURNED THEM LOOSE TO LET THEM FIND THEIR OWN FEED AND THEY JUST DIDN’T MAKE IT. BUT MY DAD WAS RAISED ON A RANCH. HE WAS A COWBOY. I CONSIDERED HIM PROBABLY MORE COWBOY THAN MOST COWBOYS ARE TODAY…” PRIOR TO HAVING HIS OWN FAMILY, RICHARD BAILIE “… WAS INTO RODEOS. HE LIKED TO RIDE, HE USED TO RIDE BRONCS… IN ALBERTA. IN THOSE DAYS, THEY HAD NO MONEY TO GO ANYPLACE ELSE, JUST ALBERTA. LOCAL RODEOS... THE LUND BOYS, AND THE ROSSES, AND SOME OF THE OTHER ONES WOULD GET TOGETHER ON A SUNDAY, AND THEY WOULD HAVE THEIR OWN RODEOS… [MY DAD] WAS AN OLD-TIME COWBOY… HE WAS IN ONE OF THE FIRST RODEOS THEY HAD IN RAYMOND. HE USED TO RIDE BRONCS, BEFORE I CAME INTO THE PICTURE, AND AFTER I WAS IN THE PICTURE. MY MOM SHUT HIM DOWN. NO MORE COWBOYING…” WHILE THERE WAS STILL FAMILY PRESENCE ON THE HOMESTEAD WHERE RICHARD BAILIE WAS RAISED, HE MOVED IN 1935 TO THE PLACE WHERE LAWRENCE BAILIE WOULD GROW UP. PRIOR TO PURCHASING HIS LAND, RICHARD MARRIED HIS WIFE, LELAH BAILIE (NEE FLICKENGER), IN 1935 AND IN 1936 LAWRENCE WAS BORN: “… MY DAD BOUGHT SOME LAND IN 1935 BETWEEN SKIFF AND GRASSY LAKE. THAT’S WHEN [MY DAD] STARTED FARMING... HE WAS MIXED FARMING. THEY WERE RANCHING AND WE HAD A LOT OF DRY LAND, AND MY DAD WAS VERY GOOD AT MECHANICS, AND SO HE BECAME A DRY LAND FARMER, AND I GUESS HE WAS SMART ENOUGH TO KNOW THAT THERE WASN’T THAT MUCH MONEY IN [RANCHING]. HE SORT OF SWITCHED FROM BEING A COWBOY TO A DRYLANDER, I GUESS… I CAN REMEMBER THAT WE MOVED FROM OUR LITTLE SHACK WHEN I WAS PROBABLY 4 YEARS OLD – 1939-1940 – TO SKIFF. MY DAD HAD BOUGHT SOME LAND AT SKIFF, BUT I REMEMBER BEING IN OUR TAR-PAPER SHACK - THAT IT GOT VERY COLD, AND AT TIMES, DURING THE NIGHT, WHEN I WAS YOUNG.” BAILIE EXPLAINS THESE BOOTS WERE HIS DAD’S GOOD SUNDAY BOOTS, WHICH HE WOULD WEAR WHEN HE WENT TO DANCES IN THE TOWN. BAILIE EXPLAINS, “HE WOULDN’T WEAR THEM RIDING BRONCS, BECAUSE THEY WERE LACED. HE COULDN’T GET THEM OFF. IF HE EVER GOT STUCK UP IN THE STIRRUP, HE COULDN’T GET HIS FOOT OUT – THEY WERE JUST ‘SHOW.’ … THEY WENT TO CHURCH, OR MOST OF THE TIME, HE’D WEAR THEM TO A DANCE. HE ACTUALLY WORE THESE LATER IN LIFE EVEN. YOU’D GO TO A DANCE, AND WEAR THESE WITH THE WESTERN HEEL. I CAN REMEMBER WHEN I WAS A KID, THAT THE SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF THAT PART OF THE COUNTRY WOULD BE DANCES, [IN PLACES] LIKE IN HUDSON SCHOOL. THERE’D BE DANCES AT SKIFF, I DON’T KNOW, A FEW A YEAR - ALWAYS AT CHRISTMAS TIME AFTER THE CHRISTMAS CONCERT. THEN THEY WOULD GET TOGETHER AND CELEBRATE MAYBE THE FOURTH OF JULY OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT. THAT WAS THE MAIN SOCIAL THING, PEOPLE GET TOGETHER TO GO TO A DANCE… MY MOM [WAS THE MORE SOCIAL ONE IN THE RELATIONSHIP]. AT THAT TIME, THE MEN USED TO GET AWAY FROM THE FARM A LITTLE BIT MORE OFTEN. LIKE MY DAD USED TO BRING IN CATTLE, OR SOME PIGS, OR SOMETHING INTO LETHBRIDGE TO THE AUCTION MART AND MY MOM WOULDN’T COME. SHE’D BE HOME, LOOKING AFTER THE FARM. WHEN YOU LIVE OUT AT SKIFF, YOU ARE 55 MILES FROM NOWHERE. THERE WASN’T MUCH SOCIAL LIFE IN A COUNTRY STORE, WHICH WE USED TO WALK [TO]. WE’D WALK IN JUST AROUND A MILE TO WALK INTO SKIFF, AND GET GROCERIES THE ODD TIME, AND THEN IF THERE WAS SOMEBODY ELSE IN THE STORE AT THE SAME, MY MOM WOULD GET TO SEE THEM. OTHERWISE, IF IT WASN’T FOR THE SOCIAL, THERE WASN’T A VERY GOOD SOCIAL LIFE." "I DON’T KNOW WHEN WOULD BE THE LAST TIME HE EVER WORE THEM," BAILIE SAID GOING BACK TO HIS FATHER'S BOOTS, "THEY WERE A NOVELTY TO HIM. I DON’T KNOW IF HE WENT DOWN THERE LOOKING FOR THEM, OR IF WE WENT BY THE SHOP AND HE [SAW] THEM. I HAVE NO IDEA WHAT HE PAID FOR THEM. I THINK I PAID ABOUT $12.00 FOR MINE, SOMETHING LIKE THAT.” AS FOR THE COLOUR CHOICE OF THE BOOTS, BAILIE STATES: “WELL, IN THOSE DAYS, BLACK WAS THE COLOR. I GUESS THERE WAS THE ODD GUY HAD SOME REAL FANCY BOOTS, BUT, NO, THERE WASN’T THE COLORS OF - . BLACK WAS IT.” WHEN ASKED WHAT HE THINKS OF WHEN HE SEES HIS FATHER’S COWBOY BOOTS, BAILIE ANSWERED: “IT TAKES ME BACK TO MY CHILDHOOD – GOOD – AND MY DAD. HE WOULD ALWAYS, EVEN WHEN HE WAS OLDER, WEAR A BIG HAT... SOMETIMES HE WAS GOOFING OFF. WE USED TO CUT A LITTLE BIT OF OUR CROP WITH A BINDER, [AND] IF YOU EVER RAN OVER A ROCK IT REALLY BUCKED YOU RIGHT OFF IT. SO HE PLAYED AROUND THE ODD TIME, [AND] HE’D SIT THERE, AND HE’D THROW HIS HEEL LIKE HE WAS RIDING A BUCKING BRONC. PUT HIS HAND UP AND HIT A ROCK AND HE’D PUT ON A SHOW FOR ME. THE BINDER WAS LIKE RIDING A BUCKING BRONC. I LOOK AT THOSE BOOTS, THEY ARE LIKE A MEMORY OF MY DAD THAT I AM VERY PROUD OF… OH, HE WAS A HARDWORKING MAN, AND STRONG. I’M A WIMP COMPARED TO MY DAD... I WAS PROUD OF HIM. HE DID WELL. HE TREATED US WELL, AND LOOKED AFTER HIS FAMILY VERY WELL.” BAILIE AQUIRED THE BOOTS AFTER HIS FATHER MOVED IN THE 1990S: “I CLEANED OUT MY MOM AND DAD’S PLACE, BECAUSE THEY WENT INTO A SENIOR CITIZENS SOMETHING, SO I CLEANED OUT HIS PLACE, AND I SEEN THE BOOTS AND I HAVE NEVER SEEN ANYBODY ELSE WITH THAT TYPE OF BOOT... MY DAD WAS THE ONLY ONE THAT I KNEW THAT HAD A PAIR OF BOOTS LIKE THAT." BAILIE SAYS THAT SINCE THE BOOTS HAVE BEEN IN HIS POSSESSION “THEY HAVE BEEN IN THE GARAGE. I’VE JUST BEEN KEEPING THEM. I DON’T KNOW IF I HAVE EVER WORE THEM OR NOT. I DON’T THINK I HAVE. MY DAD’S FOOT WAS A LITTLE BIGGER THAN MINE, SO NO. I HAVE MY OWN BOOTS, SO I WOULDN’T HAVE WORE THEM.” AS STATED IN HIS OBITURARY IN THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD, RICHARD BAILIE PASSED AWAY IN LETHBRIDGE ON MARCH 28, 2002 AT THE AGE OF 90 YEARS. HE WAS PREDECEASED BY HIS WIFE, LELAH BAILIE, WHO PASSED AWAY IN LETHBRIDGE ON OCTOBER 8, 2001 AT THE AGE OF 86 YEARS. SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT AND COPIES OF LETHBRIDGE HERALD OBITURARIES.
Catalogue Number
P20160021000
Acquisition Date
2016-08
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
CARTON, MILK
Date Range From
1957
Date Range To
1970
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
PAPER, INK
Catalogue Number
P20160019000
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
CARTON, MILK
Date Range From
1957
Date Range To
1970
Materials
PAPER, INK
No. Pieces
1
Height
24
Length
7.4
Width
7.2
Description
CARDBOARD MILK CARTON. SIDE ONE HAS “HOMOGENIZED MILK” ON TOP FOLD IN GREEN BLOCK LETTERING. FADED, BLACK INK STAMP ON THIS FOLD SAYS “?A 2 -45.” ON THE MAIN SECTION OF THIS SIDE THERE IS THE PURITY LOGO (“PURITY” IN PURPLE CURSIVE FONT), A PURPLE AND GREEN FLOWER, AND THE WORDS “CREAM IN EVERY DROP” IN PURPLE CURSIVE. ON THE BASE OF THIS PANEL IT SAYS “… HEAD OFFICE LETHBRIDGE.” THE OPPOSING SIDE (SIDE 3) IS SIMILAR, BUT WITH THE INDICATION OF “NET CONTENTS ONE QUART” AT THE BASE OF THE PANEL. SIDE 2’S TOP FOLD SAYS, “THE CONTAINER COVERED BY CANADIAN PATENTS 1941 – 395.645 1957 – 542-432… MANUFACTURED UNDER LICENSE FROM EX-CELL-O CORPORATION.” THE MAIN SECTION HAS THE PURITY LOGO AND THE SLOGANS “IT’S PURE. THAT’S SURE” AND “YOURS TO LOVE. OURS TO PROTECT.” ADDITIONALLY THIS SIDE INDICATED THAT THE MILK IS “PASTURIZED” AND IS “NOT LESS THAN 3.25% B.F.” PARALLEL TO THAT IS SIDE 4 WITH A TOP FOLD THAT HAS “SPOUT” MARKED ON IT. ON THE TOP FOLD, IT SAYS “PUREPAK” “YOUR PERSONAL MILK CONTAINER.” THE MAIN SECTION OF THIS HAS A GREEN ILLUSTRATION OF A CHURCH WITH “ATTEND THE CHURCH OF YOUR CHOICE…” ON THE BOTTOM OF THE CARTON, THERE ARE NUMBERS AND/OR LETTERS THAT WERE STAMPED INTO THE BOTTOM. A “W” IS VISIBLE. GOOD CONDITION. COLOUR OF CARDBOARD HAS YELLOWED OVERALL. THERE ARE VARIOUS STAINS ON THE SURFACE. BLACK STAINING AROUND THE CHURCH ILLUSTRATION. THE TOP FLAP OF THE CARTON IS DETERIORATING (BENT/TORN) WITH NOTICEABLE LOSS OF MATERIAL ON ONE SIDE’S CORNER.
Subjects
CONTAINER
Historical Association
BUSINESS
INDUSTRY
History
THE DONOR, HANK VROOM, FOUND THE MILK CARTON IN LETHBRIDGE APPROXIMATELY A DECADE BEFORE THE DATE OF DONATION (JULY 2016), AS A RESULT OF HIS CITY EMPLOYMENT AS A GARBAGE TRUCK DRIVER. THE LOCATION OF THE FIND IS UNKNOWN. IN THE TIME SINCE HIS POSSESSION, THE CARTON HAS BEEN IN A PLASTIC BAG IN A CUPBOARD. ACCORDING TO ADDITIONAL RESEARCH INTO THE EXISTENCE OF THIS TYPE OF MILK CARTON AND BRAND, IT IS ESTIMATED THAT THIS CARTON ORIGINATED PRIOR TO THE MID-1970S BECAUSE MILK MEASUREMENTS WERE CHANGED FROM QUARTS TO LITERS AROUND THAT TIME AND THIS CARTON’S MEASUREMENT IS INDICATED IN QUARTS. IN THE LATE 1950’S, PURITY DAIRY ADVERTISED BEING 100% PURE-PAK, MEANING THAT ALL MILK PRODUCTS CAME IN CARDBOARD CARTONS. BLOW MOLD PLASTIC CONTAINERS REPLACED CARDBOARD SHORTLY AFTER. WITH THE INDICATION OF THE 1957 PATENT NUMBER ON THE CARTON, THIS PLACES THE DATE OF THE MILK CARTON BETWEEN 1957 AND THE 1970S. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT PURITY DAIRY IS FROM THE RECORD FOR ARTIFACT P20070013001: SIMONIE (SAM) FABBI STARTED FABBI DAIRY IN 1923 IN LETHBRIDGE. HE WAS AN ITALIAN IMMIGRANT WHO BEGAN THE BUSINESS WITH THREE COWS AND SOME LARD BUCKETS. THE DAIRY WAS LOCATED AT 12 STREET B NORTH. AT THAT TIME, MILK WAS TRANSPORTED USING LARD PAILS OR CANS, WHICH, WITH THE HELP OF SAM’S SONS, WOULD BE LADLED INTO CUSTOMER’S CONTAINERS. FABBI DAIRY EXPANDED TO THE SOUTHSIDE DAIRY HILL IN THE EARLY 1930S. SHORTLY AFTERWARDS, FABBI DAIRY BOUGHT CITY DAIRY. SONS STAN AND ROMEO BOUGHT THE BUSINESS FROM THEIR FATHER IN 1936. AT THIS POINT, MILK WAS PACKAGED AND SOLD IN GLASS BOTTLES IN PINT, QUART OR GALLON SIZES. THE DAIRY HAD ITS OWN COWS, WHICH WERE MILKED DAILY AND WOULD PASTURE IN THE COULEES. BY 1936, HOWEVER, MILK AND CREAM WERE BROUGHT IN FROM OFFSITE. BETWEEN 1939 AND 1944, THE FABBI DAIRY BOUGHT PAVAN DAIRY AND THE BELLEVUE DAIRY. AT THAT POINT IN TIME, MANY SMALL DAIRIES WERE SUBJECT TO PASTEURIZATION LAWS, AND CHOSE TO CLOSE DOWN RATHER THAN CONVERT. FABBI DAIRY PURCHASED MAJESTIC THEATRE IN THE LATE 1930S OR EARLY 1940S FOR $10,000 FROM MAYOR SHACKERFORD, CONVERTING IT INTO A MILK BOTTLING PLANT. FABBI DAIRY CHANGED ITS NAME TO PURITY DAIRY, AND EXPANDED THROUGHOUT THE LATE 1940S AND 1950S, OPENING UP BUSINESSES IN MEDICINE HAT (1948), CALGARY (1950), EDMONTON (1950), CRANBROOK (1958), RED DEER AND TABER. ALL THESE LOCATIONS HAD DAIRIES EXCEPT FOR TABER, WHICH HAD A DEPOT. ACCORDING TO KEN FABBI, STAN FABBI’S SON, STAN AND ROMEO ESTABLISHED A DAIRY IN CALGARY WITHOUT A LICENSE. THE ONLY WAY TO OBTAIN A LICENSE FOR A DAIRY AT THAT TIME WAS TO BUY OUT AN EXISTING DAIRY. EXPANSION WAS SEEN AS NECESSARY TO THE FABBI BROTHERS, IF THEY WERE TO REMAIN IN BUSINESS. THE PURITY DAIRY IN CALGARY WAS DEEMED ILLEGAL, AND IN THE EARLY 1960S, STAN AND ROMEO FABBI WERE HANDCUFFED AND ARRESTED. PUBLIC SYMPATHY FOR THE FABBI BROTHERS ENABLED THEM TO PURCHASE A LICENSE AFTER THE INCIDENT. PURITY DAIRY HAD MANY INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS THAT OTHER DAIRIES IN TOWN DID NOT HAVE, LIKELY CONTRIBUTING TO THE DAIRY’S POPULARITY WITH THE PUBLIC. PURITY DAIRY WAS THE FIRST DAIRY IN WESTERN CANADA TO RELY SOLELY ON THE USE OF MILK TANKERS, WHICH VISITED VARIOUS LOCALS TO PICK UP MILK AND BRING IT TO THE DAIRY. PRIOR TO 1957, FARMERS WERE REQUIRED TO DELIVER MILK IN CANS TO THE DAIRY THEMSELVES. PURITY DAIRY HAD A SUBSTANTIAL FLEET OF RETAIL DELIVERY VEHICLES. IN ITS EARLY DAYS, HORSES WERE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE DELIVERY SYSTEM. AT ONE POINT, 17 HORSES WERE BEING USED FOR DELIVERY PURPOSES. IN 1959, PURITY DAIRY REPLACED ITS LAST THREE HORSES WITH DELIVERY TRUCKS. IN THE 1950S, PURITY DIARY BEGAN TO STREAMLINE PRODUCTION. BUTTER WAS PRODUCED IN MEDICINE HAT, WHILE THE LETHBRIDGE BRANCH PRODUCED ICE CREAM, NOVELTIES, BUTTER MILK, AND SOUR CREAM, IN ADDITION TO MILK AND COTTAGE CHEESE. THE EDMONTON PLANT SHARED MILK PRODUCTION WITH LETHBRIDGE, AND BECAME THE SOLE PRODUCER OF BLOW MOLD PLASTIC FOR PURITY DAIRY. BUSINESS BEGAN TO FALL IN THE 1960S, AND IN 1971 STAN AND ROMEO FABBI SOLD PURITY DAIRY TO CO-OP DAIRY, WHICH WAS SUBSEQUENTLY KNOWN AS PURITY CO-OP LTD. BEFORE THE SALE, PURITY DAIRY EMPLOYED ABOUT 200 FULL-TIME STAFF AND SUPPLIED MILK PRODUCTS TO THOUSANDS OF ALBERTANS DAILY. THE LETHBRIDGE PLANT EMPLOYED ABOUT 70 PEOPLE, AND MANUFACTURED ICE CREAM CONFECTIONS, COTTAGE CHEESE, BUTTER, YOGURT, BUTTERMILK, SOUR CREAM, AND FRUIT DRINKS. STAN’S WIFE, NETTI, SAID OF THE SALE, “WE LOST EVERYTHING…WE EXPANDED TOO FAST. I TOLD STAN ‘WHO CARES? I’VE GOT YOU AND WE STILL HAVE THREE MEALS A DAY.’” IN 1972, PURITY CO-OP LTD WAS BOUGHT OUT BY PALM DAIRY, WHICH WAS CLOSED DOWN FOLLOWING A DRAMATIC EXPLOSION IN 1978. IT REOPENED AT A DIFFERENT LOCATION ONE YEAR LATER. IN THE INTERIM, PRODUCTS WERE SHIPPED IN FROM THE CALGARY PLANT. STAN AND ROMEO FABBI DIED IN 1992 AND 1991, RESPECTIVELY. THIS INFORMATION WAS GATHERED IN 2008-09 FROM ANTOINETTE AND KEN FABBI, STAN’S WIFE AND SON, RESPECTIVELY, AND FROM THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARCHIVES. FOR MORE INFORMATION, SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR P20070013001. SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR P20160019000 FOR ADDITIONAL LETHBRIDGE HERALD CLIPPINGS, PRINT RESEARCH, AND PATENT DOCUMENTS.
Catalogue Number
P20160019000
Acquisition Date
2016-07
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
MAHJONG SET
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
PLASTIC
Catalogue Number
P20150028000
  2 images  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
MAHJONG SET
Date
1987
Materials
PLASTIC
No. Pieces
159
Height
9.6
Length
23
Width
23
Description
A – G: 7 STANDARD 6-SIDED DICE. 6 OF THE DICE HAVE BLACK DOTS ON A WHITE BACKGROUND, EXCEPT RED DOTS FOR THE ONE AND THE FOUR ON ALL DICE. THE SEVENTH DIE IS THE SAME AS THE FIRST SIX BUT WITH BROWN DOTS INSTEAD OF BLACK. THE DICE ARE 1.4 CM CUBED WITH ROUNDED EDGES. GOOD CONDITION: NORMAL WEAR FROM USE. H-I: A DIRECTIONAL PIECE CUBE (LIKE A DIE) AND A HOLDER. THERE ARE RED CHINESE CHARACTERS ON 4 OF THE 6 SIDES OF THE WHITE CUBE. THE DIE IS 1.2 CM CUBED. THE PIECE’S CIRCULAR HOLDER HAS A RED TOP AND A WHITE BASE WITH A CUBE INSERT IN THE CENTER OF THE TOP THAT FITS THE DIRECTIONAL PIECE. THE HOLDER IS IN FAIR TO GOOD CONDITION. IT IS WELL WORN AND THE EDGES ARE YELLOWING. FAIR TO GOOD CONDITION WITH SOME WEAR TO THE CHARACTERS AND THE CORNERS OF THE DIE. J-BBBBBBB: MAHJONG GAME SET. 144 TILES PLUS 4 BLANK SPARES (148 TILES TOTAL). THERE ARE 108 SIMPLE TILES (OF THE 3 SUITS: DOTS, BAMBOO, AND CHARACTERS), THERE ARE 28 HONOURS TILES (16 WINDS AND 16 DRAGONS), AND THERE ARE TWO SETS OF BONUS TILES (FLOWERS AND SEASONS) EACH WITH 4 TILES IN THE SET. EACH TILE IS 3.5 X 2.8 X 2.1 CM. VERY GOOD TO EXCELLENT CONDITION WITH SLIGHT SCUFFING ON THE TILES. CCCCCCC – DDDDDDD: GREEN RUBBERMAID PLASTIC CONTAINER WITH A WHITE PLASTIC LID FOR THE MAHJONG SET’S CASE. THE BOTTOM OF THE CONTAINER READS “RUBBERMAID 4 QUARTS” “J-3204”. THE DIMENSIONS OF THE CONTAINER ARE 23 X 23 X 9.6 CM. THE DIMENSIONS OF THE LID ARE 23 X 24.5 X 1.5 CM. GOOD CONDITION. THE OVERALL SURFACE OF BOTH THE CONTAINER AND THE LID ARE SCRATCHED. ON THE LID, THE TOP COATING OF PLASTIC IS PEELING OFF. THERE IS ADHESIVE TAPE RESIDUE IN ONE CORNER.
Subjects
GAME
Historical Association
ETHNOGRAPHIC
LEISURE
History
ON NOVEMBER 10, 2015, COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN INTERVIEWED RICHARD LOO AT THE GALT MUSEUM REGARDING A MAHJONG SET HE WAS DONATING TO THE MUSEUM. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION HAS BEEN EXTRACTED FROM THAT INTERVIEW: MAHJONG IS A TILE-BASED GAME THAT ORIGINATED IN CHINA. LOO RECALLS ACQUIRING THE SET APPROXIMATELY 30 OR 40 YEARS AGO. HE SAID HE GOT THEM, “WHEN I WENT BACK TO HONG KONG. LET’S SEE – ’87. I WENT TO HONG KONG IN ’87. I BOUGHT SEVERAL [MAHJONG] SETS… TO GIVE TO THE KIDS IF THEY WERE INTERESTED. HERE, THEY ARE NOT AVAILABLE – NOT IN THIS CITY. YOU CAN GET IT IN CALGARY, BUT, IF I BROUGHT IT BACK FROM CHINA, IT’S A BETTER DEAL FOR ME… I STILL HAVE A COUPLE OF SETS AT HOME. I GIVE SOME TO MY FRIENDS; SOME TO THE KIDS.” WHEN ASKED ABOUT HIS USE OF GAME SET, LOO EXPLAINED, “I USE IT NOT TOO MANY TIMES… THEY COME IN A CASE – LIKE A BRIEFCASE - JUST FLIMSY STUFF. IF IT WAS USED SO LONG, IT WOULD JUST GO IN PIECES. SO I PUT IT INTO CONTAINERS – KEEPS A BETTER SHAPE, THAT’S ALL.” HE EXPLAINS THAT THE GAME IS PLAYED, “MOSTLY AT HOME. TO FOOL AROUND; JUST TO KILL TIME,” AND THAT THE SET DONATED WAS A PERSONAL SET THAT HAS ALWAYS BEEN AT LOO’S HOUSE. “THERE ARE SO MANY DIFFERENT STYLES OF PLAY. WHEN I CAME, IN THOSE DAYS, WE PLAYED A DIFFERENT WAY, AND AFTER YOU STAYED FOR A LITTLE WHILE, THEY PLAYED A DIFFERENT WAY… YOU PLAY THIS GAME MORE GENERALLY FOR ENTERTAINMENT, KILLING TIME; THE PURPOSE IS NOT TO MAKE MONEY… SEE, I REMEMBER THOSE DAYS, WHEN I WAS YOUNG – JUST A KID THOSE DAYS, IN THE OLD COUNTRY, OLD DAYS. IN THE NEW YEAR, I SAW FOUR OLDER GENTLEMEN PLAY THESE GAMES, BUT I DON’T UNDERSTAND…. WE CALL IT OLD STYLE. NOBODY IS INTERESTED IN PLAYING OLD STYLE ANYMORE. [IT IS] QUITE COMPLICATED... THEY PLAY THIS ONE, JUST LIKE YOU PLAY RUMMY, BUT YOU HAVE TO USE YOUR HEAD A LITTLE BIT. SOMETIMES YOU’VE GOT LUCK TOO." LOO SAYS HE DOES NOT MISS PLAYING THE GAME, “FOR MY AGE, NO. RIGHT NOW, NOT INTERESTED - [I'VE] GOT OTHER THINGS TO DO. YOU PLAY FOR SO LONG, AND THEN, [YOU ARE] NOT INTERESTED ANYMORE. WE USED TO PLAY THIS ON NEW YEAR’S EVE, TILL THE NEXT MORNING. [WE WOULD] START ON NEW YEAR’S EVE TILL TOMORROW MORNING, 6 OR 7 O’CLOCK. NOT ANYMORE. WE PLAYED AT ALBERT’S PLACE, BOW ON TONG…” THE FOLLOWING BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ABOUT RICHARD LOO HAS BEEN TAKEN FROM THE ARTIFACT RECORDS P20110031*: LOO ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1953, HAVING LEFT THE MAINLAND OF CHINA IN 1949. LOO'S GRANDFATHER HAD MOVED TO CANADA IN EITHER LATE 1800S OR THE EARLY 1900S AND HAD HAD TO PAY THE HEAD TAX. HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED AS A COOK IN RESTAURANTS, EITHER IN LETHBRIDGE OR IN TABER (ACCORDING TO LOO, HIS GRANDFATHER WORKED THROUGH THE WAR YEARS IN TABER). LOO’S GRANDFATHER HAD PLANNED ON MOVING BACK TO CHINA WHEN HE RETIRED, BUT THEN THE COMMUNISTS TOOK OVER, AND HE ELECTED TO STAY. AT THAT TIME, HE INVITED LOO TO MOVE TO LETHBRIDGE AS WELL. LOO LEFT HONG KONG, AFTER LIVING THERE FOR 8 MONTHS, ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON AT 2PM LOCAL TIME. HE ARRIVED IN LETHBRIDGE SUNDAY AFTERNOON. HE WAS LUCKY IN THAT HE WAS ABLE TO GET HIS FLIGHTS ON SALE. NORMALLY A TICKET FROM HONG KONG TO VANCOUVER WOULD HAVE COST $700, BUT LOO WAS ABLE TO SECURE A FLIGHT FOR ONLY $500. HE ALSO INDICATED THAT HIS FLIGHT TO LETHBRIDGE WAS ONLY $39.95. ON RECALLING HIS FIRST TIME IN LETHBRIDGE, LOO RECOUNTED THE FOLLOWING STORY: “SO, BY THE TIME I GOT TO THE AIRPORT, I DIDN’T KNOW HOW TO SAY [ANYTHING]. DIDN’T KNOW – MAYBE COULD SAY ‘GOOD MORNING’ – THAT’S ALL I COULD SAY, JUST HOW TO SAY ‘HELLO.' IN THE MEANTIME, THE FELLOW AT THE AIRPORT MUST HAVE KNOWN ZEKE, YOU KNOW ZEKE QUAN [OWNER OF] THE LOTUS INN [RESTAURANT], AND HE PHONED HIM UP. HE SAYS, ‘ZEKE.’ I DIDN’T KNOW WHAT HE WAS TALKING ABOUT – NOTHING. AND THEN HE SAYS, ‘HEY, THIS IS A CHINA BOY HERE. WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO WITH HIM?’ SO, ZEKE SAYS, ‘OH, JUST TAKE HIM TO CHINATOWN AND DUMP HIM.’ NOW, I DIDN’T KNOW THOSE, NOT UNTIL LATER ON. ZEKE’S SON GO TO SAME SCHOOL I DID – CENTRAL SCHOOL.” LOO INITIALLY LIVED IN THE NATIONAL LEAGUE SOCIETY BUILDING FOR SEVERAL YEARS, OCCUPYING A ROOM THAT HAD BEEN RECENTLY VACATED BY ANOTHER MAN NAMED LOO WHO HAD GONE TO WORK IN PICTURE BUTTE. LOO RECALLED THAT THE SOCIETY WAS A GOOD PLACE TO FEEL A SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND THAT IT WAS A WELCOMING PLACE FOR NEW CHINESE IMMIGRANTS, A PLACE WHERE THEY WEREN’T DISCRIMINATED AGAINST. PLEASE SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR MORE INFORMATION, INCLUDING FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION
Catalogue Number
P20150028000
Acquisition Date
2015-11
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
KNITTING BAG
Date Range From
1870
Date Range To
1999
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
CANVAS, FABRIC, THREAD
Catalogue Number
P20160003005
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
KNITTING BAG
Date Range From
1870
Date Range To
1999
Materials
CANVAS, FABRIC, THREAD
No. Pieces
1
Length
41
Width
36
Description
HANDMADE BAG MADE OF 3 SECTIONS OF STRIPS OF ABOUT 5 INCHES (APPROX. 13 CM) EACH. IT IS RED WITH BLUE, YELLOW, GREEN, AND RAW MATERIAL ACCENTS. THE TRIM AT THE TOP OF THE BAG IS BLUE WITH A HANDLE OF THE SAME FABRIC ON EITHER SIDE. THERE IS A STRIP OF RAW, NOT PATTERNED FABRIC AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BAG. BOTH SIDES OF THE BAG HAVE THE SAME ARRANGEMENT OF PATTERNED STRIPS. THERE IS ONE SEAM CONNECTING THE FRONT AND THE BACK OF THE BAG ON BOTH SIDES. THE INSIDE IS UNLINED. GOOD TO VERY GOOD CONDITION. THERE IS SOME STITCHING COMING LOOSE AT VARIOUS POINTS OF THE PATTERNING.
Subjects
CONTAINER
Historical Association
DOMESTIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC
History
THE KONKINS WERE A RUSSIAN-SPEAKING FAMILY FROM THE TOWN OF SHOULDICE, ALBERTA, NEAR CALGARY. THEY AND MANY OTHER RUSSIAN FAMILIES COMPOSED THAT TOWN’S DOUKHOBOR COLONY. IT WAS THERE WILLIAM KONKIN MARRIED ELIZABETH WISHLOW. IN 1928 THEIR DAUGHTER, ELSIE WAS BORN. THEY LATER MOVED TO A FARM IN VAUXHALL, ALBERTA. THE PRECEDING AND FOLLOWING INFORMATION HAS BEEN EXTRACTED FROM A TWO-PART INTERVIEW WITH DONOR ELSIE MORRIS, WHICH WAS CONDUCTED BY COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN ON FEBRUARY 17, 2016. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION COMES FROM FAMILY HISTORIES AND TEXTS PROVIDED BY THE DONOR. A FULL HISTORY OF THE KONKIN FAMILY CAN BE FOUND WITH THE RECORD P20160003001. A STATEMENT WRITTEN BY MORRIS ATTACHED TO THE BAG STATES THAT THE MATERIAL OF THE BAG ORIGINATES FROM THE 1870S. THE STATEMENT READS: “THIS BAG WAS HAND WOVEN IN STRIPS [THAT WERE USED] TO SEW ON THE BOTTOM OF PETTICOATS. THE GIRLS AT THAT TIME HAD TO HAVE A TROUSEUA [SIC] TO LAST A LIFETIME BECAUSE AFTER MARRIAGE THERE WOULD BE NO TIME TO MAKE CLOTHES SO WHAT THEY MADE WAS STURDY. THEY STARTED ON THEIR TROUSEUS [SIC] AS SOON AS THEY COULD HOLD A NEEDLE. WHEN IT WAS HAYING TIME THE GIRLS WENT OUT INTO THE FIELD TO RAKE THE HAY. THEY WORE PETTICOATS OF LINEN TO WHICH THESE BANDS WERE SEWN. THE LONG SKIRTS WERE PICKED UP AT THE SIDES AND TUCKED INTO THE WAISTBANDS SO THAT THE BOTTOMS OF THE PETTICOATS WERE ON DISPLAY.” “THESE BANDS WERE ORIGINALLY MY GREAT GRANDMOTHER’S WHO CAME OUT OF RUSSIA WITH THE DOUKHOBOR SETTLEMENT IN 1899. THEY WERE PASSED ON TO MY MOTHER, ELIZABETH KONKIN, WHO MADE THEM INTO A BAG IN THE 1940S” THE STRIPS THAT MAKE UP THE BAG SERVED A UTILITARIAN PURPOSE WHEN SEWN TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PETTICOATS. IN THE INTERVIEW, MORRIS EXPLAINS: “… THESE STRIPS ARE VERY STRONG. THEY’RE LIKE CANVAS. THEY WERE SEWN ONTO THE BOTTOM OF THE LADY’S PETTICOATS AND THEY WORE A SKIRT ON TOP OF THE PETTICOATS. THESE STRIPS LASTED A LIFETIME, IN FACT MORE THAN ONE LIFETIME BECAUSE I’VE GOT THEM NOW. THEY WOULD TUCK THE SKIRTS INTO THEIR WAISTBAND ON THE SIDE SO THEIR PETTICOATS SHOWED AND THEY WERE TRYING TO PRESERVE THEIR SKIRTS NOT TO GET CAUGHT IN THE GRAIN. THE GIRLS LIKED TO WEAR THEM TO SHOW OFF BECAUSE THE BOYS WERE THERE AND THEY ALWAYS WORE THEIR VERY BEST SUNDAY CLOTHES WHEN THEY WENT CUTTING WHEAT OR GRAIN." “[THE FABRIC] CAME FROM RUSSIA. WITH THE AREA WHERE THEY CAME FROM IS NOW GEORGIA AND THEY LIVED ABOUT SEVEN MILES NORTH OF THE TURKISH BORDER, THE PRESENT DAY TURKISH BORDER… [THE DOUKHOBORS] CAME TO CANADA IN 1897 AND 1899.” MORRIS EXPLAINS THAT SURPLUS FABRIC WOULD HAVE BEEN BROUGHT TO CANADA FROM RUSSIA BY HER MATERNAL GRANDMOTHER FOR FUTURE USE AND TO AID THE GIRLS IN MAKING THEIR TROUSSEAUS: “THE TROUSSEAU THE GIRLS MADE HAD TO LAST THEM A LIFETIME BECAUSE THEY WOULDN’T HAVE TIME BUT RAISING CHILDREN TO SEWING THINGS. SEWING MACHINES WERE UNKNOWN THEN.” THE BANDS OF FABRIC THAT MAKE UP THE BAG WOULD HAVE BEEN REMAINS NEVER USED FROM ELIZABETH KONKIN’S TROUSSEAU. SHE HAND WOVE THE BAG WHILE SHE WAS LIVING IN SHOULDICE. THE BAG WAS USED BY MORRIS’ MOTHER TO STORE HER KNITTING SUPPLIES. WHEN MORRIS ACQUIRED THE BAG IN THE 1990S, IT MAINTAINED A SIMILAR PURPOSE: “WELL I USED TO CARRY MY STUFF FOR THE WEAVER’S GUILD BUT NOW I DON’T USE IT FOR ANYTHING. IT’S VERY HANDY YOU KNOW IT DOESN’T WEAR OUT.” THERE WAS ONLY ONE BAG MADE OUT OF THESE REMNANTS BY MORRIS’ MOTHER. PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE FOR MORE INFORMATION INCLUDING FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION, OBITUARIES, PHOTOGRAPHS, AND FAMILY HISTORIES.
Catalogue Number
P20160003005
Acquisition Date
2016-02
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
ACME BOOT
Date Range From
1937
Date Range To
1962
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
LEATHER
Catalogue Number
P20150016005
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
ACME BOOT
Date Range From
1937
Date Range To
1962
Materials
LEATHER
No. Pieces
2
Height
28.5
Length
30.5
Description
A-B: RED COWBOY BOOTS (LEFT AND RIGHT BOOT). THE LEATHER BOOT BODIES ARE RED WITH GOLD ACCENTS AND GOLD OPENING TRIMS. LEATHER SOLES HAVE BEEN RE-HEELED. INTERIORS LABELLED “ACME BOOT” AND INK STAMPED, “MADE IN THE USA”. GOOD CONDITION. ON BOTH BOOTS, THERE IS A RED DYE LOSS IN VARIOUS PLACES, ESPECIALLY AT THE TOES. SOME OF THE GOLD ACCENTS ARE SCUFFED. REGULAR WEAR TO THE BOTTOM SOLES. THERE IS WEAR TO THE INSIDE SOLES (MORE SEVERELY ON BOOT A). BOTH BOOTS ARE MISSHAPEN (BOOT B TO A GREATER EXTENT). ON BOOT A, THERE IS A LOOSE THREAD ON THE TOE DESIGN. THERE IS A LOOSE YELLOW THREAD ON THE INSIDE HEEL ON BOOT B.
Subjects
CLOTHING-FOOTWEAR
Historical Association
PERSONAL CARE
PROFESSIONS
LEISURE
History
EVERAL HORHOZER (NÉE SUPINA) WAS BORN IN LETHBRIDGE IN THE YEAR OF 1927 TO HER PARENTS DONAH (NÉE HILL) AND NICHOLAS SUPINA. SUPINA WAS THE OWNER OF SUPINA’S MERCANTILE ON 13TH STREET NORTH, LETHBRIDGE. THESE COWBOY BOOTS WERE PART OF THE STAGE OUTFIT WORN BY JOE HORHOZER WHEN HE WAS THE ACCORDION PLAYER AND MUSIC ARRANGER FOR A WELL-KNOWN LETHBRIDGE MUSICAL GROUP CALLED THE ALBERTA RANCH BOYS. THE GROUP FORMED IN THE SUMMER OF 1937 WITH MEMBERS LOUIS (LOU) GONZY, MATT (BUCK) WASOWICH, PETER (CURLY) GURLOCK, REMO BACEDA, AND ‘LITTLE JOE’ HORHOZER. COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN CONDUCTED A SERIES OF INTERVIEWS (ON APRIL 2, APRIL 16, AND MAY 7, 2015) WITH HORHOZER REGARDING A GROUP OF ARTIFACTS SHE DONATED TO THE MUSEUM. THE INFORMATION BELOW HAS COME FROM THESE INTERVIEWS AND LETHBRIDGE HERALD RESEARCH REGARDING THE HORHOZER FAMILY HISTORY. IN THE INTERVIEW, HORHOZER EXPLAINED SHE MET HER HUSBAND, JOE HORHOZER, WHEN HE CAME TO WORK FOR SUPINA’S MERCANTILE. FOR THE STORY OF HOW THEY MET, PLEASE SEE RECORDS P20150016003 AND P20150016004. WHEN DESCRIBING HER HUSBAND'S MUSIC CAREER, HORHOZER SAID, “I WOULD CALL HIM THE LEAD INSTRUMENT BECAUSE AN ACCORDION IS, EH? AND HE WAS EXCEPTIONALLY GIFTED WITH THE ACCORDION; THAT’S WHAT EVERYBODY SAID, THAT THERE ISN’T ANYONE, AT LEAST AROUND THIS COUNTRY, THAT COULD COMPARE WITH HIM.” DESCRIBED IN THEIR SOUVENIR BOOK PUBLISHED IN 1941 AS “PROFESSIONAL RADIO ENTERTAINERS”, THE ‘ALBERTA RANCH BOYS’ WERE FORMED WHEN THE LOCAL EXHIBITION AND STAMPEDE PARADE WAS FOUND WANTING FOR A “COWBOY BAND” AS PART OF ITS LINEUP. ACCOLADES FOR THE PARADE ACT FOLLOWED, INSPIRING THE GROUP “TO EMBARK ON THE LONG ROAD TO FAME AND FORTUNE”. IN A YEAR’S TIME – AND AFTER TOURING THROUGH ALBERTA AND BC – THE BAND ENDED UP IN VANCOUVER. THERE IT ESTABLISHED ITSELF, ACCORDING TO THE BOOKLET, AS “WESTERN CANADA’S MOST VERSATILE STAGE AND DANCE FAVOURITE,” BROADCASTING ITS COWBOY MELODIES FOR OVER TWO CONTINUOUS YEARS VIA CKWX (VANCOUVER’S LARGEST RADIO STUDIO AT THE TIME). DURING THE WAR, IT DONATED ITS TALENTS TO THE PROMOTION OF WAR SAVINGS CERTIFICATES. ONE VICTORY RALLY SONG FOR STAMPS WAS “WE’VE BOUGHT THEM BEFORE AND WE’LL BUY THEM AGAIN.” BY EARLY JAN-FEB 1943, THE BAND HAD PEAKED. ONE MEMBER IS REPORTED TO HAVE ENLISTED IN THE CANADIAN ARMY WHILE OTHERS, ACCORDING TO THE DONOR, “GOT SICK”. “THEY DID A LOT IN TORONTO.” RECALLED EVERAL IN AN INTERVIEW. “[IT WAS FROM] TORONTO THEN THEY COULD HAVE GONE [TO NEW YORK] - THAT’S WHERE THEY WERE OFFERED THE BIG JOB OF RECORDING AND BEING ON TV…BUT THEN [JOE] SAYS THAT HE DOESN’T CARE, BECAUSE HE SAYS IF HE WOULD HAVE WENT, HE WOULDN’T HAVE MET ME, SO, I MEAN, THAT WAS A NICE THING TO SAY. HE SAYS LIFE TURNED OUT GOOD FOR HIM.” EVERAL WAS NOT AWARE OF THIS AT THE TIME OF THEIR MEETING. AFTER FINDING OUT, SHE SAID, “WELL, I THOUGHT, GEE WHIZ, WELL, HE JUST ISN’T AN EVERYDAY JOE AND EVERYBODY IN TOWN KNEW HIM AND ADMIRED HIM. YEAH, IT MADE ME A LITTLE MORE HAPPY.” THESE RED COWBOY BOOTS WERE PART OF THE COSTUME JOE HORHOZER WORE WHEN HE PERFORMED WITH THE ALBERTA RANCH BOYS, AND LATER THE 'COUNTRY CAPERS,' A LETHBRIDGE-BASED BAND FOR WHICH HE PLAYED THE ACCORDION BEGINNING IN 1958. IT WAS EVERAL WHO DYED THEM THE BRIGHT RED COLOUR: “HE ASKED ME [TO DYE THE BOOTS]. HE SAID HE WANTED TO CHANGE, THEY WERE GETTING TO LOOK KIND OF SHABBY, AND I DON’T KNOW WHY HE PICKED RED, BUT THAT’S WHAT HE DID SO, THAT’S WHAT I - ACTUALLY THESE STOOD UP QUITE WELL [LAUGHS]. THE REGULAR COLOUR WAS - I THINK THEY WERE BLACK-LIKE. BLACK WITH WHITE... THOSE WERE THE ONLY BOOTS THAT HE HAD.” OF THE PERFORMANCE COSTUME EVERAL HORHOZER SAID: “WHEN THEY STARTED PLAYING AT THE TRIANON THEN, I TELL YOU, THEY START WEARING MORE BAND [CLOTHES] - LIKE THEY HAD DIFFERENT BLAZERS, COLOURED BLAZERS – BLUE ONES AND RED ONES AND ALL WORE BLAZERS THEN ‘CAUSE THEY WANTED TO BECOME LIKE A DANCE BAND, I GUESS YOU’D SAY.” “HE WOULD NEVER FORGET THAT TIME [WITH THE RANCH BOYS],” HORHOZER SAID OF HER HUSBAND, “HE TALKED ABOUT IT ALL THE TIME. HOW THEY MET SO MANY [PEOPLE], LIKE THEY’D PLAY AT PRIVATE PARTIES FOR WEALTHY PEOPLE. HE ABSOLUTELY LOVED HIS MUSIC. HE LIVED FOR HIS MUSIC.” BACK HERE IN LETHBRIDGE IN 1958, EVERAL’S HUSBAND JOE WENT ON TO PERFORM WITH THE COUNTRY CAPERS, PLAYING ACCORDION FOR A WEEKLY BROADCAST VIA THE LOCAL TV STATION CJLH. IN 1961, THE STATION AND THE BROADCAST WERE PRESENTED WITH A NATIONAL LIBERTY AWARD FOR “TV STATION SHOWMANSHIP” AND “BEST LOCAL PROGRAMMING.” IN HIS TIME, ‘LITTLE JOE’ PLAYED WITH ROY ROGERS, GENE AUTRY AND TOMMY HUNTER. HE DIED IN 2010 AT AGE 89. EVERAL HORHOZER PASSED AWAY IN LETHBRIDGE 6 YEARS LATER ON JUNE 6, 2016 AT THE AGE OF 88 YEARS. PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION INCLUDING FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS, LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARTICLES, AND FURTHER PUBLICATIONS.
Catalogue Number
P20150016005
Acquisition Date
2015-05
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
"113TH BATTALION...LETHBRIDGE HIGHLANDERS"
Date Range From
1915
Date Range To
1930
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
WOOD, WICKER, PAINT
Catalogue Number
P20190007005
  2 images  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
"113TH BATTALION...LETHBRIDGE HIGHLANDERS"
Date Range From
1915
Date Range To
1930
Materials
WOOD, WICKER, PAINT
No. Pieces
1
Height
8.5
Length
52.6
Width
41.5
Description
BROWN WOOD TRAY WITH WICKER SIDES AND HANDLES; INSIDE OF TRAY HAS LARGE STENCILLED AND PAINTED CREST COMPRISED OF AN OVAL WITH BLACK OUTLINE, A BLACK, YELLOW, AND RED CROWN AT THE TOP, A GREEN MAPLE LEAF IN THE CENTER OF THE OVAL WITH “113” IN YELLOW, A BLACK BANNER ACROSS THE BASE OF THE OVAL WITH “CANADA” IN YELLOW, GREEN THISTLES AROUND THE BANNER, AND YELLOW TEXT ON BROWN BACKGROUND AROUND THE EDGES OF THE OVAL, “OVERSEAS BATTALION, LETHBRIDGE HIGHLANDERS”. WICKER SIDES ARE DISCOLOURED AND WORN; BASE IS SCRATCHED AND HAS BROKEN AND FRAYED WICKER ENDS AROUND EDGES; INSIDE OF TRAY HAS CRACKLING OF FINISH, IS SCRATCHED, AND PAINT IS FADED; OVERALL VERY GOOD CONDITION.
Subjects
CONTAINER
Historical Association
MILITARY
COMMEMORATIVE
History
ON MARCH 28, 2019, COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN INTERVIEWED CAROL AND BRETT CLIFTON REGARDING THEIR DONATION OF VARIOUS LETHBRIDGE AND MILITARY MEMORABILIA. THE OBJECTS WERE COLLECTED BY CAROL’S LATE HUSBAND, CHRIS CLIFTON, AND DONATED IN HIS MEMORY. ON THE TRAY, BRETT CLIFTON NOTED, “THE ONES [I FIND IMPORTANT], AFTER MY BREAK- IN, THERE WERE SOME OTHER THINGS THAT WERE TOTALLY IRREPLACEABLE TO ME, NOT NECESSARILY THE HIGHEST MONETARY VALUE, BUT SOMETHING WHERE I’D BE LIKE, “OH, DARN WHERE AM I EVER GOING TO FIND ANOTHER LETHBRIDGE HIGHLANDERS TRAY AGAIN?...SOME OF THE THINGS TOO THAT I CHOSE, THE PENNANTS AND THE TRAY IN PARTICULAR AND THE SPORRAN, ARE JUST THINGS LIKE, THEY’RE REALLY COOL FOR ME TO HAVE AND THEY’RE AWESOME TO SIT IN MY BASEMENT AND I CAN GO LOOK AT THEM ANY TIME I WANT, BUT NO ONE ELSE GETS TO SEE THEM. THERE’S A BROADER STORY TO BE TOLD IN A MORE, COMMUNITY APPRECIATION, I THINK, THAN JUST SITTING IN MY BASEMENT, IN MY MAN CAVE, LOOKING AT IT.” ON CHRIS CLIFTON’S ACQUISITIONS OF THE OBJECTS, CAROL CLIFTON NOTED, “[CHRIS SEARCHED ON] AUCTION WEB…HE WAS A VERY EARLY USER. THESE THINGS COST MONEY. CHRIS AND I WERE ALWAYS LIKE, ‘OH WELL, ONE DAY WE’LL DONATE THEM AND IT’LL BE OUR GIFT TO CHARITY...’” “MUCH OF THE REST [OF THE COLLECTION] WAS FOUND BY CHRIS ON EBAY…IT COULD BE THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT [AND CHRIS WOULD SAY], ‘HEY, BRETT, GUESS WHAT’S ON EBAY?’” “HE DIDN’T THINK TWICE. IF [AN ITEM] WAS THERE AND HE COULD AFFORD IT, HE GOT IT...IT WAS LIKE HE FELT LIKE HE WAS SAVING IT. I SUPPOSE, AS A MUSEUM, YOU CAN’T NECESSARILY JUST BUY WITH THAT ABANDON BECAUSE YOU HAVE PEOPLE YOU HAVE TO ANSWER TO. WELL, HE DIDN’T HAVE TO ANSWER TO ANYONE...IF HE FELT IT BELONGED IN LETHBRIDGE HE BOUGHT IT...[HE WAS] BRINGING IT HOME.” ON THEIR MOTIVES FOR DONATING THE COLLECTIONS, CAROL CLIFTON NOTED, “THE FIRST REASON THAT WE DECIDED TO DONATE AT THIS TIME…IS THAT WE THOUGHT IT WOULD BE A NICE WAY TO HONOUR [CHRIS] TO MAKE SURE THAT THE COLLECTION ALWAYS STAYED IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA AND THAT IT’S AVAILABLE TO PEOPLE WITH SIMILAR INTERESTS. [THE DONATION] WOULD BE SOMETHING IN HIS MEMORY THAT WOULD KEEP HIS MEMORY ALIVE.” ON HER HUSBAND’S INTEREST IN SOUTERN ALBERTA HISTORY, CAROL CLIFTON ELABORATED, “CHRIS PASSED AWAY…[HE] REALLY MADE US INTERESTED IN HISTORY. FOR HIM IT WAS ALL ABOUT LOCAL HISTORY, SO ANYTHING THAT HE COLLECTED HAD A LETHBRIDGE OR SOUTHERN ALBERTA CONNECTION OR HE DIDN’T COLLECT IT. HE LIKED TO RESEARCH THEM.” “[CHRIS] WAS VERY PROUD TO HAVE BEEN RAISED MORMON FROM A MORMON FAMILY THAT HAD DEEP PIONEER ROOTS INTO UTAH, AND WERE ORIGINALS TO UTAH AND ORIGINALS TO SOUTHERN ALBERTA. ALONG WITH THAT MORMONS…REALLY ENCOURAGE HISTORY IN TERMS OF COLLECTING THEIR ARTIFACTS OR RELIGIOUS ARTIFACTS, AND GENEALOGY. [CHRIS DID] ALL OF HIS OWN GENEALOGY AND HE WOULD DO GENEALOGY FOR ANYONE HE KNEW. WE JUST LITERALLY HAVE REAMS OF PERSONAL HISTORY AND GENEALOGY IN THAT FORM. IT GREW FROM THERE. [CHRIS] WAS A COLLECTOR AT HEART, HE BEGAN COIN COLLECTING AND DID A LOT OF WORK FOUNDING A NUMISMATICS SOCIETY IN TOWN AND BELONGED TO SEVERAL, AND DISPLAYED ON A NATIONAL LEVEL.” “IN TERMS OF THE MILITARY ITEMS, I WOULD SAY [HIS INTEREST BEGAN] WITH HIS DAD BEING FROM THE CALGARY TANK REGIMENT IN DIEPPE AND A PRISONER OF WAR. HIS DAD’S MOTHER HAD SAVED A BUNCH OF ITEMS AND BEFORE CHRIS’ DAD PASSED AWAY, HE GAVE EVERYTHING TO CHRIS…THAT KIND OF FOSTERED [HIS INTEREST IN MILITARY COLLECTIONS] AND THEN IT JUST GREW INTO INTERESTING LOCAL THINGS.” “CHRIS LOVED SOUTHERN ALBERTA, AND NO MATTER WHAT, HE NEVER WOULD HAVE LEFT SOUTHERN ALBERTA. HE LOVED TO TRAVEL BUT HE NEVER WOULD HAVE MOVED. HE LIVED IN MAGRATH AND LETHBRIDGE HIS WHOLE LIFE AND HAD NO INTEREST IN ANY OTHER PLACE BUT HERE.” ON CHRIS’ RESEARCH EFFORTS, CAROL CLIFTON RECALLED, “CHRIS WAS METICULOUS. ANYTHING CHRIS DID, HE DID IT TEN TIMES MORE THAN ANYONE ELSE WOULD. HE WOULD NOT GIVE UP…WHEN [HIS SON] BRETT DID THE CENOTAPH WORK, CHRIS WOULD HELP HIM IDENTIFY [THE NAMES] AND IT WOULD BE A DEAD END AFTER ANOTHER DEAD END, AND THE NEXT THING YOU KNEW WAS CHRIS HAD FOUND A RELATIVE IN ENGLAND WHO WAS A GREAT GRANDDAUGHTER’S NEIGHBOR. HE WOULD LITERALLY SPEND YEARS RESEARCHING ONE THING. IT WAS JUST HIS PERSONALITY AND HIS LEVEL OF INTEREST AND HE DIDN’T STOP THERE, HE WOULD DO IT FOR ANYONE…HE WAS A VERY GIVING PERSON AND HE WAS SO FANTASTICALLY GOOD AT THAT TYPE OF RESEARCH.” “[CHRIS] AND BRETT TOGETHER WOULD DO [THE RESEARCH] AND I WOULD DO IT OUT OF INTEREST…I DON’T KNOW OF ANYONE WHO DID IT TO THE LEVEL HE DID. HE WOULD BE UP IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT FOLLOWING A LEAD IN EUROPE ON SOMEONE HE DIDN’T KNOW FOR SOMEONE HE BARELY KNEW…[CHRIS WAS] TOTALLY SELF-TAUGHT…OF COURSE WITH THE INTERNET IT BECAME MUCH EASIER FOR EVERYONE TO [SEARCH]. THE GENEALOGY HE DID BEFORE WAS PRE-INTERNET SO THAT INVOLVED A LOT OF ARCHIVAL THINGS…HE BEGAN RESEARCH WORK VERY EARLY IN THE INTERNET AND WE GOT OUR FIRST COMPUTER IN 1995, AND HE PRETTY MUCH DID RESEARCH FROM THEN ON. HE WAS INTERESTING IN THAT NO MATTER WHAT RESEARCH HE DID HE DIDN’T WANT CREDIT FOR IT. HE DIDN’T WANT TO BELONG TO THINGS…IN ADDITION, HE DIDN’T LIKE TO DO THE WRITING, ALTHOUGH HE COULD WRITE, BUT HE WAS THE BEST PROOF READER BECAUSE HE WAS SO METICULOUS, AND HE WOULD PROOF READ FOR ANYONE. [IF] SOMEBODY WROTE AN ARTICLE HE WOULD BE A PROOF READER OR A FACT CHECKER. IT WAS JUST HIS NATURE…[HE WAS] STUBBORN, AND COMPETITIVE, AND INTERESTED, AND METICULOUS, AND IF HE DID IT IT’S CORRECT. IF THERE’S A MISTAKE IN IT HE SURE DIDN’T KNOW IT. HE WOULD HAVE NEVER PUT ANYTHING DOWN HE WASN’T PRETTY DARN SURE OF.” IN 2014 COLLECTIONS ASSISTANT JANE EDMUNDSON CONDUCTED A SURVERY OF MILITARY OBJECTS. THE FOLLOWING BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LETHBRIDGE HIGHLANDERS IS EXCERPTED FROM CHRISTOPHER R. KILFORD'S BOOK 'LETHBRIDGE AT WAR: THE MILITARY HISTORY OF LETHBRIDGE FROM 1990 TO 1996' (BATTERY BOOKS & PUBLISHING, 1996) AND COMPILED BY EDMUNDSON. "THE 113TH CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, THE LETHBRIDGE HIGHLANDERS, WERE ORGANIZED DECEMBER 22, 1915 [AS] PART OF A CANADIAN RECRUITING DRIVE WHERE MEN FROM THE SAME REGION COULD ENLIST AND SERVE TOGETHER. THIS TYPE OF COMMUNITY SPIRIT RECRUITING WAS VERY POPULAR AS IT DREW IN FRIENDS, NEIGHBOURS, CO-WORKERS, ETC. WITH THE PROMISE OF SERVING TOGETHER THROUGHOUT THE WAR. THE 113TH CONSISTED OF 883 MEN AND OFFICERS AND HAD ITS BARRACKS AT THE EXHIBITION GROUNDS IN LETHBRIDGE... BASIC TRAINING IN THE CEF INVOLVED RIFLE TRAINING, BOMBING OR HAND GRENADE PRACTICE, ROUTE MARCHES, RIFLE DRILL AND MANY INSPECTIONS... IN LATE MAY 1916 THE BATTALION MOVED TO SARCEE CAMP OUTSIDE CALGARY FOR FURTHER TRAINING THAT LASTED UNTIL SEPTEMBER... ON SEPTEMBER 26TH 1916 THE 113TH EMBARKED ALONG WITH THE 111TH AND 145TH BATTALIONS ON THE SS TUSCANIA... UPON ARRIVING IN ENGLAND THE BATTALION WAS TAKEN TO A HOLDING CAMP AT SANDLING NEAR SHORNCLIFFE... THE COMMANDING OFFICER LEARNED THAT THE 113TH WOULD BE BROKEN UP FOR REPLACEMENTS AND WOULD NOT SEE ACTION AS A UNIT AFTER ALL... THE 113TH WAS TRANSFERRED TO THE 17TH RESERVE BATTALION CEF, THE NOVA SCOTIA HIGHLANDERS, AFFILIATED WITH THE SCOTTISH SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS... ON OCTOBER 12, 1916 MOST OF THE OLD 113TH PROCEEDED TO FRANCE... ALMOST IMMEDIATELY 300 MEN OF THE OLD 113TH WERE ASSIGNED AS REPLACEMENTS TO ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS BATTALIONS IN THE CEF, THE 16TH BATTALION CANADIAN SCOTTISH." FOR MORE INFORMATION INCLUDING THE FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION AND LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARTICLES, PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE P20190007001-GA.
Catalogue Number
P20190007005
Acquisition Date
2019-03
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
"COORS"
Date Range From
1980
Date Range To
1990
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
GLASS, PAPER
Catalogue Number
P20180029007
  2 images  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
"COORS"
Date Range From
1980
Date Range To
1990
Materials
GLASS, PAPER
No. Pieces
1
Height
23
Diameter
6
Description
BROWN GLASS BOTTLE WITH SILVER AND YELLOW METAL TOP; TOP HAS FLUTED EDGES AND BLACK TEXT “TWIST OFF, COORS, OR USE OPENER”. BOTTLE NEVER OPENED; CONTENTS INTACT. BOTTLE HAS YELLOW LABEL ON FRONT WITH BLACK TEXT “COORS” WITH BLACK AND WHITE IMAGE OF A WATERFALL AND RED BANNER OVER IMAGE WITH WHITE TEXT “BEER, BANQUET, BIERE”, WHITE TEXT AT LOWER EDGE “341 ML”. LABEL SIDES GOLD WITH BLACK TEXT ON RIGHT “BREWED ACCORDING TO THE QUALITY STANDARDS OF THE ADOLPH COORS COMPANY, GOLDEN, COLORADO, U.S.A., AGED SLOWLY FOR THAT [WORD HAS HOLE IN CENTER], MOUNTAIN SMOOTHNESS AND [WORD HAS HOLE IN CENTER]”, TEXT ON LEFT “BREWED UNDER LICENCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE ADOLPH COORS COMPANY, GOLDEN, COLORADO, U.S.A., MOLSON BREWERIES OF CANADA LTD., MONTREAL, ST. JOHN’S, TORONTO, BARRIE, WINNIPEG, REGINA, EDMONTON, VANCOUVER, CANADA, UNION MADE”. BOTTLE HAS EMBOSSED TEXT IN GLASS ABOVE LABEL “COORS”. LABEL HAS TEARS AND HOLES IN SIDES; LOWER EDGE OF LABEL FRONT IS TORN WITH LOSS; BOTTLE HAS LIGHT SOILING ON FRONT; OVERALL VERY GOOD CONDITION.
Subjects
CONTAINER
Historical Association
INDUSTRY
History
ON DECEMBER 21, 2018, GALT MUSEUM CURATOR AIMEE BENOIT INTERVIEWED KEVIN MACLEAN REAGARDING HIS DONATION OF PERSONAL OBJECTS. ON THE BEER BOTTLE, MACLEAN RECALLED, “AS FAR AS IDENTITY GOES, WITH GOING DOWN TO WHITEFISH, AND SEEING NEON SIGNS IN BAR WINDOWS…THERE’S ALL [THE] NEON SIGNS FOR BEER. I ALWAYS LIKED THE COORS SIGN. MY NEIGHBOR, WHO DIDN’T LIKE MY MUSIC CHOICES, HE LITERALLY HAD, FROM THE U.S., BOUGHT A COORS NEON SIGN AND IT WAS IN HIS BEDROOM WINDOW IN HIS FARMHOUSE. IT WAS THE WHITE MOUNTAINS WITH THE RED COORS, AND I THOUGHT [IT] WAS COOL. THERE’S NO BEER SELECTION BACK THEN. IT WAS FORMS OF LABATT’S, MOLSON, IT WAS A BIG DEAL TO GET KOKANEE, BUT I CHOSE COORS. THAT WAS MY WAY OF EXERCISING SOME LEVEL OF DIFFERENCE.” “WHY [THE BOTTLE] GOT KEPT IS, NUMBER ONE IT HAS COORS ON IT, WHICH WAS MY BEER. [IN GRADE 11 WAS] ABOUT DRINKING AND DRIVING, WHICH IS THE YEAR THAT WE’RE PARTYING, SO THAT WOULD BE ’87. THE SPRING OF ’86, THERE’S A GRADUATION FOR THE KIDS IN GRADE 12 AND, BECAUSE IN GRADE 11 WE’RE BEING VERY SOCIAL AND WE’RE PARTYING…YOU’RE BEING INCLUDED TO GO TO A GRADE 12 [GRADUATION] EVEN THOUGH YOU’RE IN GRADE 11. THAT GRADUATION, FOR THAT YEAR, WHICH WAS 1986, WAS OUT IN IRON SPRINGS. IT WAS AT A SCHOOL, IT WAS IN THE FIELD AND EVERYBODY DROVE. THE WHOLE FIELD [WAS] JUST FULL OF VEHICLES, THAT’S ALL I REMEMBER. HAVE VAGUE MEMORIES OF BEING SICK AND AT A TREE AND SOMEBODY COMING OVER TO ASK HOW I WAS DOING AND I WASN’T DOING WELL, AND JUST THINKING, “THAT WAS REALLY NICE THAT THEY CARED ABOUT ME ENOUGH THAT THEY WOULD COME AND ASK.” WE SLEPT IN THE CAR THAT NIGHT. AT THAT TIME, I WAS LISTENING TO PINK FLOYD AND “THE WALL” AND I WAS LISTENING TO BOSTON.” “[IN] ’87, WE HAVE THE VERY FIRST SAFE GRAD. I DON’T KNOW HOW AND WHY THAT CAME TO PASS. I REMEMBER TWO NIGHTS OF PARTIES. ONE WAS AT SHANNON HYNDS’ FARM, THE OTHER WAS AT ALAN JANSAN’S FARM. THE SECOND NIGHT, AT ALAN’S, I ACTUALLY HAD VIDEO OF THAT PARTY. WE WERE ON BUSES, WE GOT BUSSED [TO THE LOCATION]. WE HAD TO, IN ADVANCE OF THE PARTY, BUY OUR ALCOHOL. WE WERE SUPPOSED TO BUY OUR ALCOHOL, WHICH WAS A CASE OF COORS, IN MY CASE, AND THEN HAVE IT SOMEWHERE SO THAT WE WEREN’T ACTUALLY TAKING THE ALCOHOL ITSELF TO THE SITE. IT WAS ALREADY THERE.” “THE WAY THEY SERVED THIS – I REMEMBER AT SHANNON’S AND MAYBE ALAN’S – THAT THEY HAD GALVANIZED DRINKING TROUGHS FOR CATTLE AND HORSES. THEY FILLED THEM FULL OF ICE WATER AND THEN THAT’S WHAT THESE [BOTTLES] WERE IN. THE REASON I REMEMBER THIS IS THAT BY THE END—AND SOMEONE TRIED TO DO IT TO ME BUT THEY WEREN’T SUCCESSFUL—THEY WERE THROWING KIDS INTO THAT ICE WATER. THE UNCOOL THING IS THAT THE BOTTLES WERE BREAKING AND IT WAS FULL OF BROKEN GLASS AND PEOPLE WERE BEING THROWN IN THERE. THAT WASN’T VERY COOL. WHEN I TOOK THE BOTTLE…I’M DRINKING COORS LIGHT. I HAD MY OWN NEON SIGN, SILVER BULLET. I TAKE THE BOTTLE BECAUSE IN MY MIND, BECAUSE THIS PARTY IS ENDED AND WE HAVE TO LEAVE, DOESN’T MEAN THAT I’M INTERESTED IN STOPPING DRINKING. I TAKE THE BOTTLE TO DRINK WHEREVER I’M GOING NEXT AND THEN I DON’T END UP DRINKING IT ‘CAUSE IT’S PROBABLY FIVE IN THE MORNING. OVER TIME, IT GETS SAVED BECAUSE IT’S A REMINDER OF THIS WHOLE HIGH SCHOOL [CULTURE].” ON HIS TIME DRINKING AND PARTYING, MACLEAN ELABORATED, “MY PARENTS CERTAINLY HAD PARTIES AT THE HOUSE SO THAT WAS SOMETHING THAT WAS FAMILIAR TO ME. THEY BUILT A HOUSE UP IN PICTURE BUTTE IN 1975. THEY HADN’T, INITIALLY, DEVELOPED THEIR BASEMENT. THEY DID WITHIN TWO TO THREE…THERE WERE HERITAGE ELEMENTS EITHER BY DECORATION, BY THE DESIGN OF THE INTERIOR THAT SHE INCORPORATED WHICH SPIKED MY INTEREST. THEY HAD A DANCE FLOOR DOWN THERE, OF WOOD. THE WALLS WERE MIRRORS, SO ALL THAT DISCO ERA-TYPE STUFF. THERE WAS A BAR THAT WAS BUILT, TOO. MY PARENTS WERE FRIENDS WITH AN R.C.M.P. OFFICER’S FAMILY, SO THE FAMILY IS OVER, AND THEY’RE UPSTAIRS AND I’M LITERALLY SERVING THE R.C.M.P. OFFICER’S KIDS…WHISKEY OUT OF THIS BAR. IT WASN’T THAT I HAD SOME SENSE THAT BY DRINKING THE FLUID THERE WAS IMPAIRMENT. IT WAS JUST SOMETHING THAT ADULTS DID.” “IN TERMS OF [MY FRIENDS AND I] IT HAPPENS TO BE THAT VERY TIME [WHEN] WE’RE IN THE BACK OF THAT PICKUP, AS KIDS…WHEN WE FINISH GRADE 9…THE SUMMER OF 1984. MY DAD DROPS US OFF IN THE COULEES DOWN AT THE END OF THE GRAVEL ROAD. THERE’S A BIG, DEEP COULEE DOWN THERE. WE HIKE AROUND AND THEN WE MANAGE TO COME BACK AND THERE’S SHALLOWER COULEES BY MY OWN PLACE. WE SET UP A TENT AND WE SLEEP OVERNIGHT DOWN THERE. ONE KID [WITH US] IS LES. I DON’T REMEMBER HOW OR WHY BUT HE HAD A MICKEY OF VODKA [OR GIN]. HE POUNDED IT BACK. HE DRANK THE WHOLE THING IN FRONT OF US. WE DON’T REALIZE OR UNDERSTAND WHAT THAT’S GOING TO DO EXCEPT TO KNOW THAT ALCOHOL IS SOMETHING THAT ADULTS ARE SUPPOSED TO BE DOING. LATER ON THAT NIGHT HE STARTED THROWING UP [ALL OVER THE PLACE]. THE REST OF US NEVER TOUCHED IT. HE WAS THE ONLY ONE. THEN WE KNEW THAT ALCOHOL MAKES YOU SICK. “IN GRADE 10 WE LEAVE. THERE’S FIVE BOYS AND ELEVEN GIRLS [IN MY CLASS]. WE LEAVE A CATHOLIC SCHOOL AND WE GO INTO THE PUBLIC SYSTEM. WE MERGE WITH ALL THESE OTHER KIDS.” “[WE’RE] STILL IN PICTURE BUTTE…THERE’S THIRTY-FOUR PUBLIC KIDS. SOME OF THOSE KIDS WOULD BE FROM MORE DIVERSE BACKGROUNDS THAN OUR OWN. MOST OF THE KIDS THAT WERE IN MY CLASS WERE ACTUALLY FROM DUTCH FAMILIES. THERE’S A LOT OF DISTRACTION FOR ME BECAUSE OF ALL THESE OTHER KIDS, SOME OF WHOM DON’T NECESSARILY WORK AS HARD IN SCHOOL. I DON’T THINK I WAS A KID WHO EVER THOUGHT IT WAS IMPORTANT TO WORK THAT HARD IN SCHOOL. I JUST WANTED TO HAVE FUN. GRADE 10, THERE’S ALSO THE GIRLS AND STUFF. BUT, THERE’S NO DRINKING AT ALL [IN GRADE 10] THAT I REMEMBER. THERE’S CERTAINLY DISTRACTIONS AS A BOY IN GRADE 10 WOULD HAVE.” “THEN IN THE SUMMER OF…1985, IN AUGUST…I DON’T REMEMBER HOW OR WHY BUT I’M WITH LES. I’VE SPENT NINE YEARS WITH HIM…IN PART, BECAUSE OF WHERE HE LIVED. MY AUNT AND UNCLE LIVED RIGHT NEXT DOOR. I REMEMBER BEING IN THE VEHICLE WITH HIM, AND THE VEHICLE BELONGED TO A [GIRL] NAMED CAROLINE OHLGART. SHE WAS DRIVING AND IT WAS A MUSTANG. SHE WAS THE ONE WHO WAS DRIVING AND THEN THERE WAS ANOTHER [GIRL], MELINDA. I THINK THERE [WERE] THREE BOYS AND TWO GIRLS IN THIS CAR. IT’S THE END OF THE SUMMER AND WE’RE IN SHAUGHNESSY. SOMEHOW THEY GET THIS GUY WHO SOMEBODY KNOWS…AND THEY GET OFF-SALES FROM THE SHAUGHNESSY BAR...WE GET A CASE OF BEER AND THAT’S REALLY THE FIRST TIME [I DRINK]. IT WASN’T EVEN SO MUCH THAT WE WERE DRINKING AS THE FACT THAT I WAS WITH THESE OTHER GIRLS AND GUYS. IT JUST FELT LIKE A VERY EXCITING THING TO DO. IT TURNED OUT, AS AN EXPERIENCE GOES, TO BE A REALLY GOOD EXPERIENCE. THAT SET THE STAGE, RIGHT OFF THE BAT, FOR GRADE 11, WHICH WAS PARTYING.” “IN GRADE 11, INITIALLY [LES IS] STILL A FRIEND. I’M HANGING OUT WITH HIM BUT I’M ALSO HANGING OUT WITH EVERYBODY. IT DIDN’T MATTER WHO THEY WERE, I COULD HANG OUT WITH ANYBODY. BUT, I’M NOTING THAT, FOR VARIOUS REASONS, HE AND ANOTHER GUY…[WERE] GOING DOWN A PARTICULAR ROAD AND, IF I EXERCISE SOME CRITICAL JUDGMENT AT [THE] TIME, IT WAS THAT, ‘OKAY, I SHOULD NOT CONTINUE ON THIS PATH’. IT DOESN’T MEAN THAT I CAN’T BE FRIENDS WITH THESE PEOPLE BUT IN TERMS OF MY IMMEDIATE SOCIAL CIRCLE, THAT MIGHT NOT BE A WAY TO GO. THEN I ELECTED…TO BE HANGING OUT MORE WITH [OTHERS]. THEY’RE MORE [INTO] SPORTS. THEY’RE DOING BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL WHICH I NEVER DID ‘CAUSE I COULD NEVER PLAY ANYTHING. THEY’RE ALSO RELATIVELY STRONG ACADEMICALLY. THEY’RE GOOD KIDS FROM GOOD BACKGROUNDS. [THAT] DOESN’T MEAN THAT THEY’RE NOT PARTYING BECAUSE THEY’RE OUT PROBABLY EQUALLY EVERY SINGLE WEEKEND. BUT, THAT PARTYING WOULD INVOLVE BEER AS OPPOSED TO HASH OIL AND WEED WHICH WOULD BE MORE WHAT THE KIDS THAT THINGS DON’T NECESSARILY END UP WELL FOR [DID], LOOKING BACK.” “WE’RE OUT EVERY SINGLE WEEKEND AND, UNLIKE BEING IN LETHBRIDGE WHERE HOUSE PARTIES MIGHT BE A LITTLE BIT MORE ACCESSIBLE AND CLOSE…[OUR] HOUSE PARTIES ARE MILES AWAY. YOU WOULD HAVE TO GET THERE AND GET BACK. I REMEMBER, CERTAINLY IN GRADE 11 IN THE FALL, I DON’T HAVE MY DRIVER’S LICENSE ‘CAUSE THAT’S 1985. [I WAS] THINKING AT THE TIME THAT, AS LONG AS I WASN’T THE ONE DRIVING, THEN IT WAS OKAY AND [I WASN’T] NECESSARILY KNOWING WHAT THE STATE [WAS] OF THE INDIVIDUAL THAT WAS DRIVING.” “IT WOULD BE ALSO AT THIS TIME THAT THE WHOLE DRINKING AND DRIVING THING WAS GOING DOWN BECAUSE, POTENTIALLY, THREE YEARS PREVIOUS IT WAS NOT, CULTURALLY, AS BIG OF A DEAL. BUT, BY 1985, IT’S A BIG DEAL. IT’S STARTING TO REALLY KICK IN…OVER THE YEARS, YOU’VE WITNESSED IT, THAT THERE’S PEOPLE THAT WILL DRINK AND DRIVE, PEOPLE THAT YOU KNOW.” “IN TERMS OF PARTYING, I KNOW THAT IN GRADE 10, I WASN’T PAYING ATTENTION. I WAS KEEPING UP WITH MY FRIENDS BUT I WASN’T PUTTING ANY EXTRA WORK INTO [SCHOOL]…I WAS MORE ABOUT [THE] SOCIAL [ASPECTS]. THEN, IN GRADE 11, IT BECAME PARTYING EVERY WEEKEND. BY GRADE 12, I WAS [THINKING], ‘OH, YOU KNOW WHAT, THIS IS ALL GOING TO COME TO AN END IN FAIRLY SHORT ORDER SO I BETTER START WORKING A LITTLE BIT HARDER.’ I REMEMBER THE WHOLE PARTY THING AS BEING A LITTLE BIT LESS. NOT TO SAY THAT IT WASN’T STILL GOING ON BUT I KNEW THAT I HAD TO WORK HARDER IN SCHOOL. IN GRADE 12, THOUGH, THESE KIDS ARE GETTING TO BE OLDER…THEY ARE ABLE TO START TO DRIVE BECAUSE THEY HAVE DRIVER’S LICENSES TO DRIVE INTO LETHBRIDGE AND ACTUALLY GET ADMITTED TO BARS. THEY WOULDN’T EVEN WANT ME TO BE WITH THEM BECAUSE IF THEY WANTED TO GO TO A SPECIFIC BAR, WHICH, IF IT WAS A REALLY COOL BAR, AND I WAS WITH THEM, AND I COULDN’T GET IN, THEN THEY COULDN’T GO.” “IN ALL HONESTY…MY RELATIONSHIPS WITH [MY CLASSMATES] MEANT SOMETHING AND THAT CLASS OF FIFTY KIDS. I GENERALLY, OVER ALL AT THE TIME, ENJOYED THEIR COMPANY. THEY WERE FRIENDS. WHEN I CAME INTO LETHBRIDGE, FOR SOME YEARS—YOU COULD ALMOST SAY IT WAS NOT TILL UNIVERSITY—BUT THERE WOULD BE A FEW YEARS THAT I WOULD HAVE VERY WARM FEELINGS WHERE TODAY I DON’T LOOK BACK UPON IT AS THIS ‘BEST TIME OF MY LIFE’.” “BECAUSE I DIDN’T GO TO HIGH SCHOOL THE CITY…THE CLASSES ARE A LOT SMALLER [IN PICTURE BUTTE]. BY THE TIME I GRADUATE IN JUNIOR HIGH, THERE’S ONLY SIXTEEN OF US. WHEN I GRADUATE [FROM] HIGH SCHOOL, THERE’S ONLY FIFTY. I THINK [THE LCI GRADUATING CLASS AT THE TIME] WAS THREE HUNDRED KIDS. IT WAS HUGE. WHERE YOU DON’T EVEN KNOW ALL THE KIDS. I GUESS THERE’S MORE OPPORTUNITY FOR POCKETS OF KIDS WHO WANT TO EXPRESS THEMSELVES MORE STRONGLY. TO HAVE OTHER KIDS WHO FEEL THE SAME WAY. TO SUPPORT ONE ANOTHER. BUT THERE, OUT IN PICTURE BUTTE, I WOULDN’T SAY IT’S THE CASE AT ALL. MAYBE IT’S MY NOT WANTING TO STAND OUT AND DRAW ATTENTION TO MYSELF…IT WAS IMPORTANT TO ME THAT I FIT IN WHICH [DRINKING] WAS PART OF, TOO. IT WASN’T THAT I DON’T WANT TO DO THIS BUT I HAVE TO DO THIS, BECAUSE I WAS HAPPY TO DO THIS, ‘CAUSE I LIKE THE SOCIAL PART OF IT. THAT WAS ALSO PART AND PARCEL BECAUSE THEN THAT PUT YOU INTO ANOTHER GROUP IN TERMS OF ACCEPTABILITY. IN FACT KIDS THAT WOULD BE OLDER THAN YOU BY A YEAR OR TWO YEARS WOULD GIVE YOU ACCESS TO THOSE KIDS, TOO, ‘CAUSE THEN YOU WERE SHARING EXPERIENCES WITH THEM ON THE WEEKEND, CREATING CONNECTIONS WITH THEM.” MACLEAN NOTED HIS REASONS FOR SAVING AND DONATING THE BOTTLE, “I THINK I’VE SAVED THIS [BOTTLE] IN PART BECAUSE EITHER I THINK THAT IT’S HISTORICALLY IMPORTANT. I THINK SAFE GRADS AND DRINKING AND DRIVING [ARE] IMPORTANT.” “OVER TIME, [I THOUGHT] ‘YOU KNOW WHAT, THAT WAS FROM THE VERY FIRST SAFE GRAD OUT IN PICTURE BUTTE.’ IT MIGHT BE THE CASE ‘CAUSE WHEN [MY WIFE] GRADUATED, SHE HAD A SAFE GRAD AT LCI AND THAT COULD HAVE BEEN THE SAME YEAR…WEREN’T OUT [OF CLASSES] YET. [GRADUATION WOULD BE] IN JUNE AND I THINK WE WERE STILL IN CLASSES AFTER THAT.” FOR MORE INFORMATION INCLUDING ARTICLES FROM THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD, BRANDON SUN, MEDICINE HAT NEWS, AND THE FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION, PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE P20180029001-GA.
Catalogue Number
P20180029007
Acquisition Date
2018-12
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
IRON, WOOD, PLASTIC
Catalogue Number
P20170008000
  2 images  
Material Type
Artifact
Date
1930
Materials
IRON, WOOD, PLASTIC
No. Pieces
27
Height
67
Length
35
Width
35
Description
WOOD AND IRON COIN-OPERATED SLOT MACHINE. A: BODY OF SLOT MACHINE WITH FRONT MADE OF IRON WITH RELIEF DESIGNS INCLUDING STARS. DESIGNS ARE PAINTED RED, GREEN, AND ORANGE. TOP OF THE MACHINE HAS A COIN SLOT THAT READS “5¢” EMBOSSED IN THE CENTER OF AN ORANGE PAINTED CIRCLE. BELOW ARE THREE REELS PLACED ON THE INSIDE OF THE MACHINE, VISIBLE FROM THE FRONT THROUGH THREE HOLLOW WINDOWS. THE REELS ARE CREAM-COLOURED WITH VARIOUS IMAGES OF FRUIT VERTICALLY ON THE CIRCULAR REEL. BLACK TEXT IS OVERLAID OVER THE FRUIT. EXAMPLE: THE LEFT REEL IS STOPPED AT CHERRIES WITH BLACK TEXT READING, “JOY AWAITS… COMPANY IN TWINS”. TO THE RIGHT OF THE WINDOWS IS A SCORE CARD WITH THE FRUIT IN THE LEFT COLUMN AND THEIR CORRESPONDING SCORE IN THE RIGHT CORNER (“20” AT THE TOP TO “2” AT THE BOTTOM). BELOW THE REEL SECTION ARE TWO RECTANGULAR TEXT PANELS, PAPER BEHIND PLASTIC WINDOWS. BOTH PANELS HAVE TITLES IN ORANGE TYPE – THE LEFT READS, “WATCH REELS… FORTUNE,” AND THE RIGHT READS, “YOUR NICKEL…” INSTRUCTIONS BELOW THE TITLES ARE PRINTED IN BLACK TEXT. THE LARGEST SECTION OF THE METAL FACE OF THE SLOT MACHINE HAS A RECTANGULAR GLASS WINDOW (GLASS IS SEVERELY CRACKED AND DISCOLOURED). THE WINDOW IS INSET IN PART OF THE MACHINE THAT IS PAINTED GREEN WITH ORANGE AND BLACK DESIGNS. THERE IS ONE OVAL WINDOW ON EITHER SIDE OF THE LARGE RECTANGULAR WINDOW. THERE IS A SLOT FOR TOKENS TO COME OUT ALONG THE FRONT BASE WITH A RED, GREEN, BLACK DESIGN. THE SIDES OF THE MACHINE ARE MADE FROM A DARK-STAINED WOOD WITH A GOLD PAINTED BORDER WITH ORNATE CORNERS. “MILLS NOVELTY” STAMP IN RED PAINT ON THE UPPER LEFT OF LEFT SIDE. RIGHT SIDE IS THE SAME AS THE LEFT, BUT WITH A METAL PLATE NAILED TO SIDE TITLED, “O. K. VENDER… MILLS NOVELTY CO. CHICAGO, ILL.” WITH PATENT INFORMATION LISTEL. METAL CRANK SECURED TO THE CENTER OF THE RIGHT SIDE AND A METAL KNOB ON THE BOTTOM LEFT OF SAME SIDE. THE MACHINE IN SECURED TO A WOODEN BASE. INSIDE OF THE MACHINE HAS VISIBLE REELS AND COMPONENTS FOR MACHINE OPERATION VISIBLE. FAIR CONDITION: MODERATE TO SEVERE WEAR TO OVERALL SURFACE. SIGNIFICANT LOSS OF SURFACE PAINT. WHITE METAL CORROSION VISIBLE ON THE FACE OF THE MACHINE. THE LEFT REEL ARE MODERATELY DISCOLOURED. THE MIDDLE AND RIGHT REEL ARE SEVERELY DISCOLOURED. PAPER BEHIND PLASTIC WINDOWS HAS YELLOWED. THE CRANK AND KNOB ON RIGHT SIDE ARE RUSTING ON OVERALL SURFACE. PATENT LISTING PLATE IS BROKEN AT THE TWO RIGHT CORNERS AT THE NAIL HOLES. WOOD STAIN HAS BEEN LOST IN SOME SURFACE AREAS OF SIDES. INSIDE PARTS OF THE MACHINE ARE SLIGHTLY RUSTED. BOTTOM SCREW LOOSE FROM BASE WHEN LIFTED. B: REMOVABLE BACK COVER OF SLOT MACHINE MADE OUT OF PRESSED SHEET METAL. PAPER ATTACHED TO THE INSIDE OF THE COVER WITH TYPED TEXT READING, “MR. OWNER: ALWAYS BEAR IN … CREATE FRICTION.” DIMENSIONS: 50CM X 3CM. POOR CONDITION: THE PAPER ON THE BACKING IS SIGNIFICANTLY TORN AND DISCOLOURED, RENDERING MUCH OF THE MESSAGE UNREADABLE. SIGNIFICANT DISCOLOURATION SCUFF MARKS ON OVERALL SURFACE. C-AA: 25 PLASTIC TOKENS THAT READ, “LOANED FOR AMUSEMENT ONLY” EMBOSSED ON ONE SIDE AND “PROPERTY OF O.K. VENDOR” ON THE OTHER. DIAMETER: 2 CM; WIDTH: 0.2 CM. FAIR CONDITION: SURFACE DIRT ON SEVERAL COINS. GENERAL WEAR TO COIN SURFACES.
Subjects
GAME
Historical Association
BUSINESS
LEISURE
History
ON 24 FEBRUARY 2017, COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN CONDUCTED AN INTERVIEW WITH PAM PTYCIA, THE DONOR OF THIS SLOT MACHINE. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION HAS BEEN EXTRACTED FROM THAT INTERVIEW: DESCRIBING WHY SHE CHOSE TO DONATE THE SLOT MACHINE TO THE MUSEUM AT THIS SPECIFIC TIME, PAM SAID, “BOTH MY PARENTS HAVE PASSED AWAY. MY DAD JUST PASSED AWAY IN DECEMBER. SO CLEANING OUT THE HOUSE AND EVERYTHING ELSE, WE DECIDED IT WAS TIME… [MY DAD WAS] PETO NICAS [OF] LETHBRIDGE.” SHE AFFIRMED THAT THE SLOT MACHINE BELONGED TO HER GRANDFATHER. PTYCIA'S FATHER THEN PASSED DOWN THE ARTIFACT AND INFORMATION TO HER. PTYCIA EXPLAINED, “THE SLOT MACHINE, I WAS TOLD, WAS IN HIS DAD’S RESTAURANT, THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ ON 5TH STREET HERE IN LETHBRIDGE… [HIS DAD’S] NAME WAS ANDREW A. NICAS, HE WAS COMMONLY KNOWN AS SHORTY NICAS HERE IN TOWN… IF THE SLOT MACHINE DID COME FROM THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ, I THOUGHT IT MIGHT BE OF SOME INTEREST… BECAUSE THE GREEK COMMUNITY HAS REALLY DWINDLED DOWN. IT’S JUST NOT LIKE IT USED TO BE… I GUESS IT’S JUST THAT IT’S PART OF OUR HERITAGE.” MACLEAN ESTABLISHED THAT PTYCIA WAS BORN IN LETHBRIDGE DURING THE 1960S AND THAT THIS ARTIFACT WAS IN HER CHILDHOOD HOME AS SHE WAS GROWING UP. PTYCIA RECALLED, “I JUST REMEMBER IT BEING DOWNSTAIRS… JUST IN THE AREA WHERE THE LAUNDRY ROOM WAS… I REMEMBER PLAYING IT. IT WORKED BACK THEN… YOU PUT THE COINS IN THE TOP PART. YOU JUST PULL THE LEVER AND LET IT GO AND IF YOU HIT SOMETHING, THE COINS CAME BACK OUT… WHEN I GOT MARRIED AND MOVED OUT, MY DAD GAVE ME [IT] AND IT SAT IN OUR GARAGE FOR 30 SOME YEARS.” DURING THE INTERVIEW, PTYCIA STATED THAT CHRIST GEORGE CHRISTOU WAS HER FATHER’S PARTNER IN THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ BUSINESS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ, MACLEAN INTERVIEWED CHRISTOU’S SON, DR. VAN CHRISTOU, IN HIS HOME ON 27 FEBRUARY 2017. CHRISTOU BEGAN, “I REMEMBER [THE SLOT MACHINES] VIVIDLY. THEY WERE ALL LINED UP ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ… ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE, AS YOU WALKED IN… I PLAYED WITH THEM, AS A CHILD... MY DAD GOT THAT IDEA FROM MY UNCLE FRANK, WHO HE BROUGHT OVER TO LETHBRIDGE. [FRANK] OPENED UP A POOL HALL, ACROSS THE ROAD FROM THE RESTAURANT BACK IN THE EARLY DAYS – IN THE ‘20S, I THINK – AND THEN MOVED TO BANFF. HE HAD SLOT MACHINES IN THAT [POOL HAT], AND HAD THEM IN BANFF AGAIN AND [HE] TALKED DAD INTO HAVING THEM IN THE RESTAURANT – THEY WERE A GOOD SOURCE OF INCOME.” HE EXPLAINED, “PEOPLE WOULD STAND AT THE SLOT MACHINES… THE RESTAURANT WAS DESIGNED WITH A HORSE-SHOE COUNTER ALL THE WAY AROUND, AND IT LEFT ENOUGH SPACE FOR THESE TO BE ALONG THE WALL, SO IT WAS JUST ‘STAND UP’ THE WAY YOU DO IN THE CASINOS. THERE WERE NO STOOLS FOR THOSE, BUT THEY HAD THEM FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS.” CHRISTOU WAS A CASHIER AT THE WHITE LUNCH AT THE AGE OF FIFTEEN TO SIXTEEN YEARS. HE WORKED ONLY ON SATURDAYS, AND STATED HE ENJOYED IT. HE SAID, “I LEARNED A LOT ABOUT BUSINESS – GIVING CHANGE, AND CONNECTING WITH A LOT OF THE BUSINESS PEOPLE THAT WERE IN THE AREA, AND GOT JOBS WITH THEM… BY THE TIME I WAS CASHIER, THEY HAD STOPPED USING [THE SLOT MACHINE]. I THINK THEY WERE OUT-LAWED. I THINK THERE WAS A CIVIC BY-LAW THAT FORBADE SLOT MACHINES, SO THEY WEREN’T IN USE AT THAT POINT. IT WAS EARLIER, WHEN I WAS YOUNGER, THAT I REMEMBER THEM BEING USED.” THE SLOT MACHINES WERE A SECONDARY MEMORY OF HIS FATHER’S WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ. CHRISTOU EXPLAINED, “TO ME, IT WASN’T AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE RESTAURANT BUSINESS. THE THINGS THAT I REMEMBER ARE MY DAD MAKING BANANA SPLITS; HE HAD A WONDERFUL SODA FOUNTAIN. THE FRONT OF THAT HORSE-SHOE WAS A MARBLE SODA FOUNTAIN – A MARVELOUS SODA FOUNTAIN – AND HE LOVED DOING THAT – MAKING MILKSHAKES, AND ALL KINDS OF SUNDAES, AND BANANA SPLITS." CONTINUING, HE EXPLAINED, “MY FATHER STARTED THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ IN 1907… [IT] WAS LOCATED IN THE OLIVER BUILDING, ON FIFTH STREET SOUTH, WHICH WAS MAIN STREET AT THAT TIME… THERE’S A VERY INTERESTING STORY AS TO HOW HE FOUND HIMSELF IN LETHBRIDGE. HE HAD COME OVER FROM GREECE – FROM A LITTLE VILLAGE IN GREECE [THE CORINTHIAN VILLAGE OF LIMNES] – SENT BY HIS FATHER. AT THAT TIME, THE FATHERS, IN A VERY PATRIARCHAL ATMOSPHERE, CHOSE THEIR BRIGHTEST AND BEST SON, AND SENT THEM TO AMERICA TO HELP THE FAMILY, AND DAD WAS 15 YEARS OLD WHEN HE WAS SENT TO NEW YORK. HE ARRIVED AT ELLIS ISLAND IN 1900, AT 15 YEARS OF AGE, WITHOUT ANY MONEY. I THINK HE HAD $2.00 IN HIS POCKET, AND NOT ANY KNOWLEDGE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT ALL. THERE WAS A TEAM HIRING YOUNG GREEK IMMIGRANTS TO WORK ON THE GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY THAT MET THEM AT ELLIS ISLAND. DAD HIRED ON WITH THEM, BUT HE WAS SMART ENOUGH TO BUY A DICTIONARY WITH THAT $2.00 HE HAD. [HE] BECAME THE INTERPRETER FOR THE GANG, AND WORKED HIS WAY ACROSS AMERICA. HE HAD COUSINS WHO HAD PRECEDED HIM, AND WERE ESTABLISHED IN PORTLAND, OREGON, AND THAT’S WHAT HIS DESTINATION WAS, SO THE GREAT NORTHERN GOT HIM ACROSS AMERICA TO PORTLAND. HE ESTABLISHED A BUSINESS THERE – A GROCERY BUSINESS – BUT DIDN’T LIKE IT BECAUSE IT WAS TOO WET. [HE] WORKED THERE FOR 7 YEARS, UNTIL 1907, WHEN A FRIEND OF HIS IN CALGARY, FROM A NEIGHBORING VILLAGE, WROTE HIM AND SAID THERE WAS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO OPEN A DAIRY IN CALGARY, AND WHY DON’T THEY GO INTO PARTNERSHIP? SO, WOULD DAD COME AND VISIT HIM – AND HE DID. HE TELLS THE STORY OF HOW IT HAD BEEN RAINING FOR 2 WEEKS IN PORTLAND – RAINED ALL THE WAY TO VANCOUVER – AND WAS STILL RAINING ALL THE WAY TO CALGARY. [HE] MET WITH HIS FRIEND, LIKED HIM, LIKED THE PROPOSITION – TOLD [THE FRIEND] HE WOULD GO BACK TO PORTLAND TO THINK IT OVER AND LET HIM KNOW [HE] CAME DOWN THROUGH LETHBRIDGE. STAYED OVERNIGHT AT THE LETHBRIDGE HOTEL. WOKE UP IN THE MORNING TO BRIGHT SUNSHINE, AND SAID, ‘I’M STAYING HERE.’ AND HE DID. AND HE STARTED THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ IMMEDIATELY. HE’D MADE ENOUGH MONEY IN PORTLAND WHERE HE WAS ABLE TO OPEN UP A FIRST CLASS RESTAURANT, WHICH WAS LETHBRIDGE’S PREMIERE RESTAURANT FOR THE NEXT 40 YEARS. THE WHITE LUNCH WAS JUST HALF THE SIZE IT WAS EVENTUALLY, TO BEGIN WITH AS BUSINESS GREW, HE GOT THE CONTRACT WITH THE CPR TO FEED CPR EMPLOYEES WHO CAME THROUGH LETHBRIDGE, AND, AS SOUTHERN ALBERTA BECAME SETTLED, FARMERS CAME IN TO SHOP ON SATURDAYS. BUSINESS GREW, AND DAD DID VERY WELL... [HE] BROUGHT IN MR. NICAS IN 1922, AS A PARTNER IN THE BUSINESS, AND THEY WORKED TOGETHER FOR MANY YEARS, UNTIL HE DIED.” “[AS KIDS] WE WOULD STOP IN FOR A MILKSHAKE, AND A PIECE OF PIE… LOCAL PEOPLE WOULD RARELY EAT IN THE RESTAURANT,” CHRISTOU ADDED, “NOW, PICTURE THIS – THIS WAS IN THE ‘30’S – RIGHT AT THE DEPTH OF THE DEPRESSION – PEOPLE DIDN’T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY. DENTISTS WOULD COME AND EAT AT THE RESTAURANT, AND THEY WOULD SHARE A PLATE OF PANCAKES. THEY’D COME ON SUNDAY [AND] THAT WOULD BE THEIR ONE MEAL A WEEK – AND THEY WERE THE WEALTHY PEOPLE IN TOWN. THE COMMON PEOPLE DIDN’T EAT IN RESTAURANTS AT ALL. IT WAS REALLY THE WORKING PEOPLE – THE MINERS, AND THE RAILWAY PEOPLE, AND THE FARMERS THAT WOULD COME TO TOWN THAT USED THE RESTAURANT FACILITIES. AND BECAUSE OF THAT, THE MENU WAS STRICTLY A WESTERN MENU. [PYTCIA’S] DAD COULD HAVE PRESENTED A FULL GREEK MENU, BUT IT WOULDN’T HAVE FLOWN AT ALL. NO ONE KNEW WHAT GREEK FOOD WAS, EVEN.” CHRISTOU RECALLED MEMORY OF THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ, “WE DIDN’T GO TO THE STORE THAT OFTEN BECAUSE THERE WAS A REAL SEPARATION BETWEEN HOME AND BUSINESS. DAD WAS NOT THAT HAPPY IN THE RESTAURANT BUSINESS. HE WAS A REAL FAMILY-ORIENTED PERSON, AND MISSED BEING AT HOME FOR THE MEALS THAT WE HAD AT HOME. HE HAD TO BE AT THE RESTAURANT. HE BROUGHT IN MR. NICAS AS A PARTNER, AND THAT RELIEVED HIM SO HE HAD SOME TIME AT HOME, AND LATER THEY HAD A NIGHT MANAGER – IT WAS A 24 HOUR BUSINESS. PETE, THE NIGHT MANAGER, RELIEVED THEM SOMEWHAT TOO, SO THAT THEY SPENT A LITTLE TIME AT HOME, BOTH HE AND MR. NICAS... THEY HAD EXCELLENT CHEFS; MOSTLY CHINESE CHEFS, WHO WERE TRAINED BY THE CPR, AT THE VANCOUVER HOTEL. THEY’D BE THE MAIN CHEFS THAT THEY WOULD HAVE.” “IT WAS A VERY, VERY BUSY PLACE, SAY, ON SATURDAY NIGHT… LETHBRIDGE WAS VERY BUSY IN THOSE DAYS. THERE’D BE A SALVATION ARMY PLAYING DOWN THE STREET, IN FRONT OF THE ALEXANDRA HOTEL. THE RESTAURANT WAS HALF-WAY BETWEEN – JUST PICTURE THIS, MAIN STREET, THE BUSIEST STREET – STREETCARS GOING UP AND DOWN THE STREET ALL THE TIME – WALL-TO-WALL PEOPLE – VERY, VERY BUSY – AND LOCATED HALF-WAY BETWEEN THE ALEXANDRA BEER PARLOR, AND THE DALLAS BEER PARLOR, AT THE DALLAS HOTEL – SO THOSE WERE THE REAL FOCAL POINTS FOR MOST OF THE FARMERS WHO CAME TO TOWN – AND THEY WOULD SEND THEIR FAMILIES TO THE THEATRE – THE ROXY THEATRE WAS ON THAT SAME STREET, AND THE CAPITAL, DOWN ON THE NEXT BLOCK – AND THE WHITE LUNCH BECAME SORT OF THE 'HOME AWAY FROM HOME' FOR THOSE FAMILIES THAT CAME INTO TOWN ON SATURDAYS, MANY OF WHOM STAYED OVERNIGHT. IT WAS A VERY, VERY BUSY COMMUNITY, AND THE WHITE LUNCH WAS THE PREMIERE RESTAURANT – IT WAS THE ONLY RESTAURANT THAT HAD BANQUET FACILITIES [BEFORE THE MARQUIS] IN THE BASEMENT, AND THE ROTARY CLUB, AND KIWANIS, AND KINSMEN, AND SO ON, HAD THEIR MEETINGS THERE.” CHRISTOU DESCRIBED THE CLOSING OF THE BUSINESS, “DAD WASN’T WELL. WHEN THE DEPRESSION HIT IN 1928, DAD LOST A FORTUNE, AND THE RESTAURANT BUSINESS WENT DOWNHILL TERRIBLY, BECAUSE NOBODY HAD ANY MONEY. I STILL REMEMBER BOXES OF CHITS – PEOPLE’S IOU’S – TO PAY FOR MEALS, THAT WERE NEVER PAID FOR. IT WAS VERY TOUGH TIMES FOR THEM FOR THE NEXT FEW YEARS… HIS HEALTH FAILED DURING THAT TIME. DAD BECAME A SEVERE ASTHMATIC, AND WITH HIS HEALTH SO POOR, AND BUSINESS GOING DOWNHILL, HE FINALLY SOLD OUT IN THE ‘50S… IN THE MEANTIME MY MOTHER HAD COAXED DAD TO ACQUIRE SOME RENTAL PROPERTIES, AND THEY WERE ABLE TO MANAGE WITH THAT, BUT THEY WERE VERY DIFFICULT TIMES. ACTUALLY A GREAT BENEFIT TO ME, IN THAT I WAS OLD ENOUGH TO UNDERSTAND HOW DIFFICULT IT WAS FOR THEM, AND THAT I STARTED JOBS. I WORKED AS A CASHIER AT THE RESTAURANT, WHEN I WAS IN HIGH SCHOOL, AND WORKED AT OTHER JOBS AS WELL – AT THE THEATRE, AS AN USHER AND DOORMAN AT THE CAPITOL THEATRE, AND AT THE PARAMOUNT. [I] SAVED ALL THAT MONEY FOR UNIVERSITY. THE WORK ETHIC STARTED EARLY FOR ME, BECAUSE OF THE DEPRESSION.” IN THE INTERVIEW, CHRISTOU DESCRIBED IN DETAIL HOW HIS FATHER BECAME THE FIRST GREEK IMMIGRANT TO SETTLE IN LETHBRIDGE, “... [MY FATHER] WAS THE FIRST ONE TO SETTLE PERMANENTLY. HE WAS A VERY GREGARIOUS AND LIKEABLE PERSONALITY, A VERY CIVILIZED HUMAN BEING. [HE] WELCOMED ALL THE GREEKS WHO CAME AND DIDN’T MIND IF THEY WENT INTO THE RESTAURANT BUSINESS AT ALL. SEVERAL [GREEKS] THAT HE WELCOMED, OPENED UP RESTAURANTS. THE SAVOY CAFÉ WAS OWNED BY MR. HYT; THE SHASTA CAFÉ WAS OWNED BY THE GOLIS BROTHERS, AND THE MAPLE LEAF CAFÉ WAS OWNED BY THE AFAGANIS BROTHERS – THREE AFAGANIS BROTHERS.” IN COMPARISON TO OTHER GREEK COMMUNITIES THAT WERE ESTABLISHED IN NORTH AMERICA, LETHBRIDGE’S WAS CLOSE-KNIT REGARDLESS OF A FAMILY’S GREEK REGION OF ORIGIN. CHRISTOU EXPLAINED HOW HE CAME TO LEARN THIS: “I DIDN’T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT [THE NATURE OF OUR COMMUNITY] UNTIL I WENT ON, AFTER GRADUATING IN DENTISTRY. I WENT DOWN TO ROCHESTER, NEW YORK, WHERE I TOOK MY POST-GRADUATE IN/AT THE EASTMAN DENTAL DISPENSARY, IN ORTHODONTICS… THEY HAD TWO GREEK CHURCHES THERE, AND I FOUND OUT THAT THERE, AND EVERYWHERE ELSE THAT I RESEARCHED AFTER THAT, THE GREEK COMMUNITIES WERE SPLIT QUITE BADLY IN TWO, BETWEEN THE GREEKS WHO CAME FROM ASIA MINOR, AND THE GREEKS THAT CAME FROM THE MAINLAND. [IT] BECAUSE OF THE DIFFICULTIES THAT THE GREEKS IN ASIA MINOR HAD, IN MAINTAINING THEIR RELIGION AND THEIR CULTURE. THEY WORKED HARDER AT IT THAN THE GREEKS ON THE MAINLAND, AND WERE BETTER EDUCATED, AND WHEN THEY FINALLY HAD THIS EXCHANGE OF CITIZENS – AND THE GREAT EXCHANGE BETWEEN TURKEY AND GREECE IN 1921 – THE GREEKS FROM ASIA MINOR WERE ABLE TO COME TO THE MAINLAND AND TAKE OVER THE MAIN GOVERNMENT AND OTHER IMPORTANT JOBS, AND WERE RESENTED BY THE PEOPLE ON THE MAINLAND. IN LETHBRIDGE, NONE OF THAT EXISTED AT ALL. I THINK THAT WAS MY DAD’S DOING… THERE WAS NO DISCRIMINATION WHATSOEVER… [MY DAD] AND MY MOTHER BOTH CAME FROM THE MAINLAND… THE AFAGANISES, FOR EXAMPLE [CAME FROM ASIA MINOR]. AND I MARRIED ONE OF THEM [HELEN AFAGANIS]... YES, AND THE GOLIS’, AND THE DANGGAS’, MANY OF THE OTHERS WERE FROM ASIA MINOR.” SPEAKING ABOUT WHAT IT WAS LIKE GROWING UP IN LETHBRIDGE WITHIN THE GREEK COMMUNITY, CHRISTOU SAID, “WELL, AS CHILDREN, WE DIDN’T WANT TO BE DIFFERENT. WE REALLY WANTED TO FIT IN WITH THE WASP [WHITE ANGLO-SAXON PROTESTANT] KIDS THAT WE LIVED WITH. [WE] DIDN’T LIKE, FOR EXAMPLE, HAVING TO SPEAK GREEK AT HOME AND GO TO GREEK SCHOOL. OUR PARENTS SET UP A GREEK SCHOOL FOR US. THERE WAS [A] STRANGE DOUBLE-SIDED-NESS TO IT, WHERE WE WERE VERY PROUD OF OUR CULTURE, AND DID LEARN GREEK VERY WELL (BECAME FULLY BILINGUAL), BUT THERE WAS DISCRIMINATION AT THAT TIME. WE WERE THE ONLY FOREIGN-SPEAKING PEOPLE, ON THE SOUTHSIDE OF LETHBRIDGE. THAT WAS A UNIQUE SITUATION OF THE GREEK COMMUNITY. ALL OTHER NATIONALITIES, WHO SPOKE ANOTHER LANGUAGE, LIVED ON THE NORTHSIDE. THE SOUTHSIDE WAS WASP-VILLE SO THERE WAS DISCRIMINATION AND WE FELT IT. WHEN I LEFT TO GO TO UNIVERSITY, AT 17 YEARS OF AGE, THE ONLY THING I WAS SURE OF, WAS THAT I’D NEVER COME BACK TO LETHBRIDGE BECAUSE OF THE DISCRIMINATION I FELT… THEY HAD A WAY OF LETTING YOU KNOW THAT YOU ARE A SECOND-CLASS CITIZEN, AND THAT YOU REALLY BELONGED ON THE NORTHSIDE. THE INTERESTING THING IS THAT, WHEN I CAME BACK, AND I WAS ONLY COMING BACK FOR A YEAR, I FELL IN LOVE WITH HELEN. WE GOT MARRIED; BUILT A HOME ON FIFTEENTH AVENUE, AND THERE WAS NO DISCRIMINATION WHATSOEVER, IN ONE GENERATION.” AS STATED BY CHRISTOU, THE GREEK COMMUNITY BEGAN TO SHRINK IN SIZE AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR FOR VARIOUS REASONS: “AFTER THE WAR, IT WAS A DIFFERENT COMMUNITY ALL TOGETHER. THAT COMMUNITY WAS REALLY VIBRANT UP UNTIL THE SECOND WORLD WAR… BEFORE WE GOT THE UNIVERSITY HERE, MOST YOUNG PEOPLE WOULD LEAVE TOWN. VERY FEW STAYED. THE SPOULOS BOYS STAYED. I STAYED AND HELEN STAYED BECAUSE WE GOT MARRIED. HER BROTHER CAME BACK, BUT VERY FEW OTHERS. [THE COMMUNITY] GRADUALLY DIED OUT – JUST PASSED AWAY... WE ARE THE LAST REMNANTS – JIM SPOULOS AND I, HARRY AFAGANIS AND JIM’S SISTER, OLIVIA – ARE THE LAST REMNANTS OF THAT WHOLE COMMUNITY.” ACCORDING TO HIS OBITUARY, ACCESSED FROM THE MARTIN BROTHERS FUNERAL CHAPEL WEBSITE, PETO NICAS, THE DONOR’S FATHER WAS BORN IN LETHBRIDGE ON 2 JANUARY 1924. HE BECAME A LETHBRIDGE ENTREPRENEUR, LIKE HIS FATHER, OPENING MCGUIRE’S MEN’S WEAR FOR 50 YEARS. HE PASSED AWAY ON 20 DECEMBER 2016. AN OBITUARY PUBLISHED IN THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD ON 1 APRIL 1944 FOR ANDREW A. NICAS, STATES THAT HE WAS BORN IN ARGOS, GREECE, AND IMMIGRATED TO THE UNITED STATES IN 1900. IN 1911, HE MOVED TO LETHBRIDGE. A QUOTE FROM THAT OBITUARY STATES, “FEW RESTAURANT OPERATORS IN THE PROVINCE WERE MORE WIDELY KNOWN THAN A. A. ‘SHORTY’ NICAS, GENEROUS, GENIAL, AND HOSPITABLE.” HE PASSED AWAY IN LETHBRIDGE ON 1 APRIL 1944. ACCORDING TO THE OBITUARY OF AGNES A. NICAS, WIFE OF SHORTY NICAS, STATES THAT SHE WAS BORN IN GREECE, MOVING TO MONTREAL AND THEN TO LETHBRIDGE IN 1919 UPON HER MARRIAGE TO NICAS. SHE PASSED AWAY ON 3 MARCH 1988. FROM DR. VAN CHRISTOU’S OBITUARY, ALSO ON THE MARTIN BROTHERS FUNERAL CHAPEL WEBSITE, HE WAS BORN IN LETHBRIDGE ON 24 JANUARY 1926. HIS PARENTS WERE CHRIST (CHRIS) AND ANASTASIA CHRISTOU. IN 1948, HE GRADUATED FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA WITH A DOCTORATE OF DENTISTRY, AND LATER COMPLETED HIS POSTGRADUATE IN ORTHODONTICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER FROM 1948-50. HE RETURNED TO LETHBRIDGE TO PRACTICE GENERAL DENTISTRY AND LATER ESTABLISHED HIS OWN ORTHODONTIST PRACTICE. HE MARRIED HELEN AFAGANIS IN 1952 AND TOGETHER THEY HAD FOUR CHILDREN. HE PASSED AWAY ON 27 SEPTEMBER 2017. CHRISTOU PROVIDED A WRITTEN HISTORY TITLED “LETHBRIDGE’S GREEK (HELLENIC) COMMUNITY,” WHERE HE LISTED THE TEN PRE-WORLD WAR II GREEK FAMILIES LIVING IN LETHBRIDGE, INCLUDING THE CHRISTOU FAMILY AND THE NICAS FAMILY. A LETHBRIDGE HERALD ARTICLE FROM 11 OCTOBER 1946 STATES THAT THE WHITE LUNCH CAFÉ WAS SOLD IN 1946. PLEASE SEE PERMANENT FILE FOR MORE INFORMATION, INCLUDING FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTIONS, THE WRITTEN HISTORY OF THE GREEK COMMUNITY, AND LETHBRIDGE HERALD RESEARCH.
Catalogue Number
P20170008000
Acquisition Date
2017-02
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail
Other Name
BERBER SHOE EDUKAN
Date Range From
2009
Date Range To
2015
Material Type
Artifact
Materials
LEATHER, THREAD, RUBBER
Catalogue Number
P20160011000
  1 image  
Material Type
Artifact
Other Name
BERBER SHOE EDUKAN
Date Range From
2009
Date Range To
2015
Materials
LEATHER, THREAD, RUBBER
No. Pieces
2
Length
28.5
Description
PAIR OF DARK BROWN LEATHER SHOES. TWO PANELS OF LEATHER MAKE UP EACH SHOE (ONE FRONT PIECE AND ONE PIECE FOR THE HEEL). THE LEATHER IS STITCHED TOGETHER WITH A STIFF, LIGHT-COLOURED THREAD. THERE IS A LIGHT BROWN, LEATHER THREAD FOR THE TRIM OF THE SHOE THAT GOES AROUND TO CONNECT THE TWO LEATHER PIECES THAT MAKE UP THE SHOE. THE INSOLE IS A LIGHT-COLOURED LEATHER. THE BACK OF THE HEEL IS HIGHER THAN THE REST OF THE SHOE AND IS FOLDED DOWN INSIDE THE SHOE. LIGHT BROWN BOTTOM SOLE WITH BLACK RUBBER LINING THE TOP OF THE SOLE. GOOD CONDITION. ON BOTH SHOES THERE IS LIGHT SCUFFING NEAR THE TOES. THE SOLES ARE WORN FROM WEAR, ESPECIALLY NEAR THE TOES AND HEELS. ON THE LEFT SHOE VARNISH COATING IS UNEVEN. THERE IS A SMALL OF BUILD-UP OF THE VARNISH AT THE BACK HEEL. AT THE FRONT TOE, THERE IS A PIECE OF THE BLACK SECTION OF THE SOLE COMING OUT. ON THE RIGHT SHOE, THERE IS WEAR OF THE BROWN VARNISH AT THE TOP OF THE TOE. VARNISH AT THE BACK HEEL IS UNEVEN AT HEEL. INSOLE IS CRACKING SLIGHTLY. BOTTOM SECTION OF SOLE IS LIFTING OFF THE SHOE AND THERE IS A SHINY SUBSTANCE ON VARIOUS PLACES OF THE SOLE.
Subjects
CLOTHING-FOOTWEAR
Historical Association
PERSONAL CARE
ETHNOGRAPHIC
History
THESE SHOES WERE DONATED TO THE GALT MUSEUM & ARCHIVES AFTER BEING FEATURED IN THE GALT’S EXHIBITION TITLED, "CHANGING PLACES: IMMIGRATION & DIVERSITY," THAT RAN FROM OCTOBER 31, 2015 TO JANUARY 17, 2016. THE DONOR, JAWAD ABOUCHA, WAS INTERVIEWED BY CURATOR WENDY AITKENS, ON JUNE 4, 2015 IN PREPARATION FOR THAT EXHIBITION. ANOTHER INTERVIEW WITH ABOUCHA WAS CONDUCTED BY COLLECTIONS TECHNICIAN KEVIN MACLEAN ON APRIL 26, 2016 DURING THE ACQUISITION PROCESS. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS A COMBINATION OF QUOTATIONS BY ABOUCHA EXTRACTED FROM BOTH INTERVIEWS: “I’M FROM MOROCCO AND MORE PRECISELY FROM SOUTHERN MOROCCO I WAS BORN IN A CITY CALLED TIZNIT… IT’S A CITY PROBABLY AS SMALL AS LETHBRIDGE. IT IS WHERE I WAS BORN AND RAISED… I WOULD SAY I BOUGHT [THESE SHOES] IN THE YEAR 2009… I LIVED IN FRANCE FOR FOUR YEARS SO THAT’S WHERE I BOUGHT THEM WHEN I WENT TO MOROCCO TO VISIT FAMILY… I JUST GO HOME ONCE EVERY TWO YEARS AND THEN IN MOROCCO I LIKE TO BUY THINGS THAT WOULD REMEMBER ME OF MOROCCO AND ONE OF THE THINGS I LIKE TO BUY IS SLIPPERS THAT I CAN WEAR INDOORS… I KEPT THEM [IN FRANCE AND WHEN I] MOVED TO CANADA [I] BROUGHT THEM WITH ME… … [I]N THE WINTER TIME I CAN WEAR THEM INDOORS, BUT IN THE SUMMERTIME I CAN WEAR LIKE WHEN I’M IN BACKYARD FOR EXAMPLE. I THINK WHEN I BROUGHT THEM HERE [IN] AUGUST LAST YEAR I THINK I WAS USING THEM PROBABLY IN THE SUMMERTIME.” “[THE SHOES ARE] CALLED EDUKAN FROM SOUTHERN MOROCCO… PEOPLE MOSTLY WEAR THE SHOES WHEN IT’S SUNNY OUTSIDE AND BEAUTIFUL AND THEN YOU CAN JUST WEAR THESE ONES… [THE SHOES] SYMBOLIZE SOMETHING OF MY CULTURAL BACKGROUND… I THINK IT IS THE SHAPE AND THEY’RE ALSO MADE OF, I THINK, IT’S ANIMAL SKIN… THEY’RE MADE IN MOROCCO BUT ESPECIALLY THEY SYMBOLIZE MY BACKGROUND BECAUSE THEY’RE MADE IN SOUTHERN MOROCCO AND THEY’RE [ALSO] CALLED BERBER SHOES AND PEOPLE DO WEAR THEM LIKE IN THE MOUNTAINS. I DON’T KNOW FOR HOW MANY CENTURIES PEOPLE USE TO MAKE THESE SHOES BUT WHEN YOU GO TO SMALL CITIES OR IN THE MOUNTAINS THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO MAKE THESE SHOES LIKE BY HAND. I PICKED UP THIS COLOUR WHEN I BOUGHT THEM BECAUSE I THINK THIS COLOUR DOESN’T GET CHANGED VERY QUICK WHEN THERE IS DIRT AND STUFF. THESE SHOES IN MOROCCO SYMBOLIZE THE BERBER CULTURE… I HAVE THE OTHER PICTURE IN MY MIND THAT PEOPLE MAKING [THEM] BY HAND AND THE WAY THEY CUT THE SKIN AND MAKE IT AND THEY PAINT IT AND THEY PUT THE GLUE. THAT’S THE WHOLE WORK OF THESE PEOPLE [WHO ARE] MAKING THESE SORT OF SHOES [AND] I THINK ABOUT IT.” ABOUCHA FURTHER DISCUSSES THE PURCHASE OF THE SHOES IN MOROCCO, INCLUDING THEIR COST: “I WOULD SAY AROUND IN CANADIAN MONEY IT WOULD PROBABLY BE FIFTEEN DOLLARS, WHICH IS NOT TOO EXPENSIVE BACK HOME BUT IT IS A VERY REASONABLE PRICE FOR THEM... MOSTLY SOME [VENDORS] ONLY SELL SHOES BUT IT’S A LOT OF DIFFERENT KINDS, COLOUR[S] FOR MALE OF FEMALES AND THERE IS DIFFERENT TYPES AND I LIKE THE WAY THEY ARRANGE THEM TOGETHER IN FRONT OF THE STORE. PEOPLE WHO SELL THESE SHOES, LIKE DIFFERENT MERCHANTS, THEY ALL GATHER IN ONE PART OF WHAT WE CALL BACK HOME “A SOUK” WHICH IS A NAME FOR THE TRADITIONAL MARKET… BACK HOME WE CAN ALWAYS TAKE THESE ONES AND REPAIR THEM FOR VERY CHEAP AND MOST PEOPLE DO THAT. I HAD THE OPTION ACTUALLY TO TAKE THEM BACK HOME AND REPAIR THEM AND BRING THEM BACK BUT AT THE PRICE OF FIFTEEN DOLLARS, [IT] IS NOT SO MUCH, I CAN BUY A PAIR OF NEW ONES THAT KEEP ME FOR FIVE MORE YEARS SO I DONATE THESE ONES TO GALT MUSEUM.” ABOUCHA GOES ON TO TALK ABOUT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SHOES BEING FROM HIS BIRTH COUNTRY AS HE LIVES ABROAD: “I LEFT MOROCCO WHEN I WAS TWENTY-ONE AND I’M THIRTY YEARS OLD NOW. I’VE BEEN LIVING ABROAD FOR NINE YEARS. I STILL HAVE A LOT OF FAMILY MEMBERS LIVING IN MOROCCO… MY MOM, FATHER-IN-LAW, MY SISTER, MY YOUNGER BROTHER, MY GRANDPARENTS, MY UNCLES, THAT’S ON MY DAD’S SIDE [ARE STILL IN MOROCCO]. ON MY MOM’S SIDE, ALL MY UNCLES ARE LIVING IN FRANCE. MY OLDER BROTHER ALSO LIVES IN FRANCE… I STILL SPEAK THE LANGUAGE, STILL HAVE LOTS OF MEMORIES AND STORIES OF CHILDHOOD AND ADULTHOOD AND SOME OF UNIVERSITY SO I SPENT QUITE A LOT OF TIME IN MOROCCO. IT’S A COUNTRY WHERE I WAS BORN AND RAISED. SO I HAVE SOME THINGS THAT ONCE IN A WHILE WHEN I LOOK AT IT, [AND THEY] REMIND ME OF WHERE I COME FROM… [I] REMEMBER WHERE I COME FROM WHEN I SEE [THE SHOES]. I THINK OF BACK HOME, I THINK OF WHERE I WAS RAISED AND THE PEOPLE WHO MADE THEM AND THE FAMILY MEMBERS THAT WEAR THEM ESPECIALLY MY GRANDFATHER. HE WEARS THEM LOTS, AND I’M VERY CLOSE TO HIM.” AT THE TIME OF THE INTERVIEW WITH MACLEAN, ABOUCHA HAD BEEN IN CANADA FOR ABOUT FOUR AND A HALF YEARS: “I DIDN’T IMMIGRATE TO CANADA STRAIGHT FROM MOROCCO. I ALSO LIVED IN FRANCE FOR 4 YEARS WHILE I DID PART OF MY STUDIES THERE. WHEN I WAS IN MOROCCO I WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY IN ANOTHER CITY CALLED AGADIR. THERE IS NO UNIVERSITY IN TIZNIT. SO I HAD TO MOVE TO AGADIR AND I DID MY BACHELOR’S IN CHEMISTRY. AND THEN LOTS OF PEOPLE IN MOROCCO GO TO ANOTHER PLACE TO FINISH THEIR STUDIES. THEY USUALLY CHOOSE TO GO TO FRANCE BECAUSE WE ALSO LEARN FRENCH. SO I DECIDED TO GO AND HAVE AN EXPERIENCE SOMEWHERE ELSE AND GET A DEGREE AND PRACTICE MY FRENCH. I WENT TO FRANCE, THAT WAS IN 2007, AND I LIVED THERE FOR 4 YEARS AND I GOT MY MASTER’S IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES. I WORKED FOR A BIT AND THEN AFTER LIVING THERE FOR 4 YEARS I THOUGHT I PROBABLY NEEDED TO GO SOMEWHERE ELSE... AND ONE OF THE REASONS I MOVED TO CANADA WAS BECAUSE I USED TO HAVE A REALLY GOOD ENGLISH TEACHER IN MOROCCO. I LIKED ENGLISH AND I ALWAYS WANTED TO GO TO AN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRY, SO I DECIDED TO GO TO CANADA. I [CONSIDERED] OTHER PLACES BUT I KNEW ABOUT CANADA AND I COULD USE MY QUALIFICATIONS SO I CAME HERE AND GAVE IT A TRY AND THAT’S WHAT I DID… I APPLIED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCY BEFORE I MOVED TO CANADA, WHILE I WAS IN FRANCE I GOT IT SO I MOVED TO STRAIGHT TO CANADA. I AM WHAT IS CALLED A PERMANENT RESIDENT AND I THINK THAT USED TO BE CALLED A LANDED IMMIGRANT BEFORE… I CAME TO MONTREAL FIRST BECAUSE I HAVE SOME FRIENDS WHO LIVE THERE. I LIVED THERE FOR A COUPLE OF MONTHS… AND THEN I DECIDED TO MOVE TO ALBERTA BECAUSE THERE WERE JOBS HERE AND I KNEW I WOULD PRACTICE MY ENGLISH HERE [TOO]. I MOVED HERE [IN] ABOUT FEBRUARY 2012.” “… I MOVED [TO LETHBRIDGE] ON MY OWN BECAUSE I GOT USED TO BEING BY MYSELF AND I HAD THAT EXPERIENCE LIKE IN FRANCE. I WASN’T SCARED OF MOVING HERE WITHOUT ANYBODY… I LIKE THAT ADVENTURE. I AM VERY ORGANIZED WHEN IT COMES TO MOVING TO A NEW PLACE. I DO LOTS OF RESEARCH AND THEN I GET ORGANIZED. I TAKE MY TIME TO MAKE A DECISION. I JUST ASSUME IT AND I GO AND SEE WHAT HAPPENS... I AM WORKING IN POWER ENGINEERING. I DID CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES BUT WHEN I MOVED HERE, WHILE TRYING TO GET MY DESIGNATIONS, I CHOOSE TO GO ANOTHER FIELD WHICH WAS SOMEWHAT BETTER RELATED TO WHAT I DID BEFORE WHICH IS POWER ENGINEERING. I’M WORKING NOW AS A POWER ENGINEER – STILL TAKING COURSES. I ALWAYS LIKE TO LEARN. I HAD LOTS OF UPS AND DOWNS WHEN I MOVED HERE WITH JOBS. IT WAS HARD TO GET A JOB IN THE BEGINNING BUT NOW IT’S GETTING BETTER... IT’S VERY DIFFERENT HERE IN CANADA… THERE ARE A LOT OF PROFESSIONAL REGULATIONS HERE SO YOU HAVE TO PROBABLY GO AND WRITE SOME MORE EXAMINATIONS AND GET YOUR QUALIFICATIONS RECOGNIZED BEFORE YOU CAN LOOK FOR A JOB. THAT'S ONE OF THE PROBLEMS, A LOT OF IMMIGRANTS HAVE TO FACE THAT. [BUT] THERE ARE LOTS OF SERVICES HERE FOR IMMIGRANTS AND THEY HELP PEOPLE WRITING RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS, GETTING THEIR QUALIFICATIONS RECOGNIZED. THERE IS A SERVICE HERE CALLED “FLEXIBILITY” AND THEY HELPED ME A LOT… I MET A MARGARET LISTER [AT FLEXIBILITY], AND SHE HELPED ME A LOT. SHE GOT ME IN CONTACT WITH PEOPLE, WITH EMPLOYERS. SHE HELPED ME LOTS WITH MY RESUME, MY COVER LETTER…” “I THINK LETHBRIDGE IS A VERY EXCEPTIONAL PLACE. IT WAS NOT EASY TO MEET PEOPLE HERE FOR ME… IT’S A DIFFERENT COMMUNITY. I’VE LIVED IN DIFFERENT CITIES. I’VE LIVED IN CALGARY AND MONTREAL AND DIFFERENT PLACES BEFORE. I USED TO LIVE IN SMALL CITIES OR TOWNS LIKE THIS BUT ALSO ONE OF THE THINGS I NOTICE IN LETHBRIDGE, IT CAN BE CONSERVATIVE A BIT. AND I WAS NOT USED TO THAT AND IT WAS ALSO A CHALLENGE LIVING IN A CITY LIKE THIS. BUT WE CAN ALWAYS MEET PEOPLE WITH WHOM WE CAN SHARE SAME VALUES. IT TAKES SOME TIME, YES... I WAS USED TO HAVING LOTS OF FRIENDS AND WHEN I MOVED TO LETHBRIDGE, I THINK IT WAS THE FIRST TIME I REALIZED IT WAS HARD TO MEET FRIENDS. THAT WAS THE CASE NOT ONLY FOR ME BUT ALSO FOR THE PEOPLE FROM THE COUNTRY. I ALSO THINK IT IS A GOOD THING THAT THIS IS A UNIVERSITY TOWN. SO THERE’S LOTS OF STUDENTS AND I CAN MEET DIFFERENT PEOPLE BUT IT WAS DEFINITELY HARD IN THE BEGINNING. IT TOOK ME ALMOST 2 YEARS JUST TO MEET FRIENDS AND HAVE SOME CONTACTS… I DIDN’T REALLY HAVE A PROBLEM WITH COMMUNICATING WITH PEOPLE HERE. DEFINITELY, WHEN I JUST MOVED HERE MY ENGLISH WAS NOT AS GOOD AS IT IS NOW. AND THAT’S ONE OF MY GOALS IN MOVING TO ALBERTA AND NOW IT’S GOOD. IT’S GOOD. HAVING FRIENDS ALSO HELPS.” “EVERY WEEK I MEET PEOPLE COMING FROM A DIFFERENT PLACE – BC OR ONTARIO OR OVERSEAS. I THINK THE POPULATION IS CHANGING. I THINK THERE IS MORE AND MORE [PEOPLE] FROM DIFFERENT PLACES COMING TO CALGARY OR TO LETHBRIDGE AND THAT HAS AN IMPACT ON THE BALANCE. IT IS ALSO GOOD FOR DIVERSITY [IN] THE PROVINCE…[THERE ARE] AT LEAST 10 PEOPLE HERE FROM MOROCCO. MOST OF THE PEOPLE FROM MOROCCO LIVE IN MONTREAL BECAUSE THEY SPEAK FRENCH, SO IT IS ALSO WHY THEY CHOOSE TO GO TO QUEBEC INSTEAD OF COMING TO ALBERTA… WHEN IT COMES TO LETHBRIDGE [DIVERSITY] HELPS THEM DEFINITELY BECAUSE THERE’S NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE COMING FROM DIFFERENT PLACES WHEN IT COMES TO LETHBRIDGE. BUT IT’S CHANGING BECAUSE PEOPLE GET TO KNOW OTHER CULTURES. [IT] BRINGS PEOPLE TOGETHER [TO] GET TO KNOW OTHERS – THAT ALSO HELPS WITH STEREOTYPES - IMMIGRANTS, PEOPLE COMING FROM A DIFFERENT RELIGION, RACE. IT HELPS PEOPLE GETTING TO KNOW THE WORLD – LIKE WITHOUT HAVING TO GO ABROAD.” WHEN ASKED ABOUT THE EXISTANCE OF MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT MUSLIM BELIEFS IN LETHBRIDGE, ABOUCHA RESPONDED, “THERE IS STILL [MISCONCEPTIONS]. I THINKS IT HAS SOMETHING TO DO WITH THE MEDIA. THAT’S ONE OF THE REASONS WHY I MENTIONED THAT AS MORE PEOPLE ARE COMING HERE, [IT] IS GOING TO CHANGE THE WAY PEOPLE HERE SEE IMMIGRANTS. BUT THERE ARE STILL THOSE STEREOTYPES. BUT I ALSO BELIEVE THERE ARE NOT ONLY STEREOTYPES ABOUT MUSLIMS, BUT THERE ARE STEREOTYPES ABOUT ALL ETHNICITIES AND ALL RELIGIONS. IT IS, I THINK, IT IS PART OF THE REALITY IN THE WORLD.” PLEASE SEE THE PERMANENT FILE FOR MORE INFORMATION INCLUDING FULL INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTIONS.
Catalogue Number
P20160011000
Acquisition Date
2016-02
Collection
Museum
Images
Less detail

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